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Biology Chapter 11 Cell Communication

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What is used in the type of local signaling called paracrine signaling in animals?
a local regulator such as a growth factor
A signal molecule that binds to a plasma-membrane protein functions as a
Ligand
What is G Protein?
A protein on the cytoplasmic side of a membrane that becomes activated by a receptor protein
How do receptor tyrosine kinases transduce a signal?
They form a dimer; they phosphorylate each other's tyrosines; specific proteins bind to and are activated by these phosphorylated tyrosines
What can activate a protein by trnaferring a phosphate group to it?
protein kinase
What do signal transduction pathways use second messengers for?
relay the message from the inside of the membrane throughout the cytoplasm
What is the function of the second messenger IP3?
bind to and open ligand-gated calciuk channels on the ER
Signal amplification is most often achieved by
an enzyme cascade involving multiple protein kinases
What is Scaffolding Protein
large relay protein that may bind with several other relay proteins to increase the efficiency of a signaling pathway
What is adenylyl cyclase
enzyme attached to plama membrane that converts ATP to cAMP in response to an extracellular signal
What is G Protein
relay protein attached to theinside of plasma membrane that when activated by an activated G-Protein-Linked receptor binds GTP and then usually activates another membrande attached protein

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