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Chapter 6 History Notes


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Scientific Revolution
A time period which brought the willingness to question long held beliefs and determine fact through observation and logic.
Created the Heliocentric Theory
Nicholas Copernicus
Heliocentric Theory
The idea that all the celestial bodies revolved around the sun
When did Nicholas Copernicus publish his findings?
How was Johannes Keppler realted to Nicholas Copernicus
Johannes Keppler was an assistant to Nicholas Copernicus
What did Johannes Keppler do to further the heliocentric theory?
Keppler made mathematical sense of Tyco Brahe's Data.
Who painstakingly collected data on planetary movement?
Tycho Brahe
Who designed and built telescopes in order to observe the heavens?
What theory-changing find did Galileo make while looking through his telescope?
Galileo found that the moon had an uneven surface and that the sun had spots. This disproved the theory that all of the celestial bodies were made of a perfect, unblemished material.
What did Galileo do when the church threatened him and told him to take back all of his teachings.
He accepted the offer and lived on house arrest for the remainder of his life.
When did Galileo Die?
What addition to the scientific method did Francis Bacon make?
The experimental method and analytical geometry.
Who believed that everything should be doubted until it was proven.
Rene Descartes
What is one great discovery made by Issac Newton
Newton's third law
Who invented the microscope?
Zacharias Janssen 1590
Who was called the father of chemistry?
Robert Boyle 1661
Who wrote "the starry messenger" ?
What did Anton van Leeuwenhoek do to microorganisms?
He studied them using a microscope which he made himself.
What did William Harvey Study?
He studied the movement of blood through the body.
A Revolution That Began In The 1500s
The Scientific Revolution
Who was given the name: "The Father of Anatomy"
Andreas Vesalius
What kind of science did Francis Bacon Write about and encourage?
Experimental Science
Who proved that Galen's findings about the human body were incorrect?
Andreas Vesalius.
Who was the "father of microbiology"?
What did Leeuwenhook analyze with a microscope?
Teeth Scrapings, blood and muscle fibers.
Which two philosophers did the church support?
Ptolemy and Aristotle
Who was the first to say that the earth was not the center of the universe?
Nicholas Copernicus
Who discovered the law of gravity?
Who discovered that "blood leaves the heart, is pumped to other parts of the body, and returns again to the heart"?
William Harvey
Who wrote Leviathan (1651)
Thomas Hobbes
What did hobbes believe that the natural nature of humans is?
Selfish and Wicked
The agreement of people to turn over their rights to a ruler in exchange for law and order
Social Contract
What did Locke believe that the natural nature of humans is?
Locke believed that people could govern their own affairs and look after the welfare of society
The five concepts of the french philosophes:
Reason, Nature, Happiness,Progress,Liberty
What was Voltaire's real name?
Francois Marie Arouet
Who said this? "I do not agree with a word you say but will defend to the death your right to say it."
Who wrote "Spirit of Laws"?
Montesquieu in 1748
Who wrote this? "Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains"
Mary Astell published this book in 1694
A Serious Proposal to the Ladies
Who said: If all men are born free, how is it that all women are born slaves?
Mary Wollstonecraft
What significant work did Emilie du Chatelet do?
She translated Newton's work from latin to french.
What was newton's motivation to do his work?
He sought to reveal god's majesty through his work.
Who invented bifocals and the lightning rod?
Benjamin Franklin
Who said "god helps those who help themselves"?
Benjamin Franklin
In A Vindication of the Rights of Women, this political thinker presented an argument for the education of women. She also declared that women should have the same political rights as men.
Mary Wollstonecraft
This philosopher's ideas greatly influenced criminal law reformers in Europe and North America. He argued against the use of torture and other common abuses of justice.
Cesare Bonesana Beccaria
This aristocratic philosophe was devoted to the study of political liberty. In his famous book: On the spirit of the Laws. He proposed that separation of powers would keep any indivicual or group from gaining total control of a government.
Baron De Montesquieu
This philosophe strongly disagreed with other philosophes on a number of matters. For instance, although most philosophes believed that reason, science and art improve the lives of all people, he argued that civilization corrupts people's natural goodness
Jean Jacques Rousseau
This political thinker felt that people are reasonable beings. He supported self-government and argued that the purpose of government is to protect the natural rights of the people. If government fails to protect these natural rights, he said, citizens ha
John Locke
This philosophe's masterful use of satire got him into frequent trouble with th clergy, the aristocracy, and the government of France. Despite serving two prison terms and being exiled, he never stopped fighting for tolerance, reason, freedom of religion
This political thinker believed that all humans are naturally selfish and wicked. He argued, therefore, that strong governments are necessary to control human behavior. To avoid chaos, he said, people enter into a social contract. They gave up their right
Thomas Hobbes
Which enlightenment ruler abolished serfdom?
Joseph II
Who are three composers from the enlightenment period who composed classical music?
Franz Joseph Haydn, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, and Ludwig van Beethoven
Which enlightenment ruler ruled Prussia as an enlightened despot?
Frederick the Great
Who was the editor and publisher of the Encyclopedia?
Denis Diderot
Which ruler brutally crushed a massive uprising of serfs?
Catherine the Great of Russia
Which ruler gave the nobility absolute power over the serfs?
Catherine the great of Russia.
Which Enlightenment writers developed many of the features of the modern novel?
Samuel Richardson and Henry Fielding
Who ran the most influential of Paris Salons during the enlightenment?
Marie-Therese Geoffrin
Who ruled Austria as an enlightened despot?
Joseph II
Who built a telescope in 1609?
Who published "the Starry Messenger"? In What year?
Galileo in 1610
Where did Newton Study Mathematics and Physics?
Cambridge University
Which book did Newton Publish in 1687?
The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy.
Which Enlightenment Philosophe do we associate with the idea that humans are naturaly selfish and wicked?
Thomas Hobbes
Which Enlightenment Philosophe do we associate with Absolute Rule?
Thomas Hobbes
Which Enlightenment Philosophe do we associate with the idea that humans are born with a clean slate and can self govern and learn from their mistakes?
John Locke
Which philosophe said that people were born with a right to Life, Liberty and Property?
John Locke
Which Enlightenment Philosophe do we associate with tolerance, reason, freedom of religious belief and freedom of speech?
Which philosophe said "I do not agree with a word you say but will defend to the death your right to say it.
Which Enlightenment Philosophe do we associate with Separation of powers?
Which Enlightenment Philosophe do we associate with individual freedom?
Which philosophe said "man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains"
What book did Rousseau publish in 1762?
The Social Contract
Which Philosophe inspired many french revolutionaries?
Which Enlightenment Philosophe do we associate with criminal justice?
Which Enlightenment Philosophe do we associate with women's rights?
Mary Wollstonecraft
Who was king of britain at the time of the American colonist's settlement?
King George III
Did the colonies have separate governments, or share the same system of rule.
The original 13 colonies had separate governments
Which important war happened from 1754-1763
The French and Indian War
Who was the victor in the French and Indian war?
The British colonists in America.
What did British Parliament pass in 1765?
The Stamp Act
What did the Stamp Act do?
Colonists had to pay a tax to have an official stamp put on wills, deeds, newspapers, and other printed material.
Who, in the name of the inquisition, sent a letter to Galileo questioning his Heliocentric Ideas?
Cardinal Bellarmine
Which ruler came to power in 1760 in britain?
King George III
When was the Navigation Act Passed?
What did the navigation act prevent?
The navigation act prevented American Colonists from trading with anyone but Britain.
What significant event happened in 1773?
The Boston Tea Party
What was the result of the boston tea party?
King George III Barricaded American Ports.
When was the First Continental Congress held?
When were the first shots fired between american and british troops?
1775 in Lexington Massachussets
When was the Second Continental Congress Held?
When were the Articles of Confederation passed?
When was the new constitution passed?
Where did Americans force British Surrender?
Yorktown, Pennsylvania
Which astronomer waited to publish his book until the last year of his life. The book was called "on the revolution of heavenly bodies"
Who was considered an American Philosophe?
Benjamin Franklin

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