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Chapter 6 Psychology Notes


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What is the defintion for Consciousness?
Our awareness of ourselves and our environment.
What did William James say about consciousness?
It is more important to study the functions of consciousness, not its elements.
What is Selective Attention?
One focuses on a particular aspect as in the Cocktail Party Effect.
What is the Cocktail Party Effect?
One focuses on one thing and ignores everything else.
What is the definition of Subconscious?
Something that is not always in your mind but you can recall it.
What is parallel fashion?
Several things can occur in your mind simultaneously but you are unaware of everything.
What is Day Dreaming?
When you are physically somewhere but you are mentally absent.
What is Circadian Ryhthm?
the human biological clock; regular bodily ryhthms; 24-hour cycle
What does REM stand for?
Rapid eye movement
What is REM sleep?
a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur.
Describe the first stage of sleep
brief; may experience fantastic images resembling hallucinations.
Describe the second stage of sleep
sleep spindles- bursts of rapid ryhthmic brain wave activity
Describe the third stage of sleep
much deeper sleep, muscles become more relaxed. breathing is steady and even at this point, it is hard to wake you up.
Describe the fourth stage of sleep
stage where you are dreaming, deepest stage of sleep. your blood pressure, heart rate, and brain speed up.
What are delta waves?
the large slow brain waves associated with deep sleep.
What happens in REM sleep?
about an hour after first falling asleep, you return to stage 3 and stage 2, entering REM sleep and dreaming stage
What occurs when you are in REM sleep?
Brain waves become rapid and irregular
Heart rate rises
Breathing becomes rapid and irregular
Eyes dart around behind closed lids
Muscles are semi-paralyzed preventing you to act out your dreams
What is REM sleep also called and why?
Paradoxical sleep; Paralyzed
What percent of your night is spent in REM sleep?
about 20-25%
What is Insomnia?
problems in falling and staying asleep.
What is Sleep Apnea?
temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and momentary reawakening. Most common in overweight men.
What is and indication of Sleep Apnea?
Snoring and next day sleepiness
What is Narcolepsy?
periodic, overwhelming sleepiness lasts less than five minutes, 1 in 200 people suffer from it, it is genetic, seen both in humans and dogs.
What are Night Terrors?
mostly seen in children, often occurs during the first hours of stage 4, often present with sleep walking and sleep talking, different from nightmares.
What are the two contents of Dreams?
Manifest Content and Latent Content
What is Manifest Content?
according to Freud, the remembered story line of a dream.
What is Latent Content?
according to Freud, the underlying meaning of a dream (as distinct from its manifest content) Freud believed that a dreams latent content functions as a safety valve.
What is Hypnosis?
a social interaciton in which one person (the hypnotist) suggests to another (the subject/person)that certain perceptions, feelings, and behavior will spontaneously occur.
What is Posthypnotic Suggestion?
a suggestion made during a hypnosis session, to be carried out after the person is no longer hypnotized.
What is Posthypnotice Amnesia?
supposed inability to recall what one experienced during hypnosis.
What was the experiment Dr. Hilgard conducted?
He took a hypnotized person and stuck their hand in ice water. The person had no reaction to the pain but was asked to push a key if some part of her was in pain.

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