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Anatomy Chapter 4: Skin and Body Membranes


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Function of body membranes
line surfaces, lubircate, protect
types of epithelial membranes
cutaneous, mucous, serous
cutaneous membrane (skin)
Tissue: keratinizing stratified squamous epithelium; underyling dermis: dense connective tissue

functions: protect-- s.s. epithellium makes skin tough
mucous membrane
epithelium lying on a lamina propia: loose tissue membrane

functions: lines all body cavities open to the exterior

examples: hollow organs of the respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive tracts
serous membrane
tissue: simple squamous epithelium on top of a layer of areolar tissue separated by fluid
--inner layer is attached to the organ (visceral), outer layer is attached to the body cavity (periodal).

function: lines body caveties closed to the exterior

examples: peritoneum-- lines abdominal caveites covering organs
pleura: lines the lungs
pericardium: lines the heart
connective tissue membranes
synovial membrane
synovial membrane
only type of connective tissue not considered an organ

tissue: soft areolar tissue
function: line capsules surrounding joints
examples: joints
Basic skin functions
--insulates and cushions body organs
--prtects the body from damage and bacteria
--prevents water loss
--regulates heat loss
--manufactures proteins
--holds nerve receptors
skin is composed of two types of tissue:
epidermis: stratified squamous epithelium and the dermis: dense connective tissue
layers of the epidermis are called:
stratum basale
stratum basale:
bottom layer, site of active cell regeneraion
stratum corneum:
dead keratinized cells
cells of the epidermis that produce keratin
pigent that gives skin color
melanin-- produced by melanocytes-- found in the stratum basale
the pigment is important becuase
it sheilds DNA from ultraviolent rays
vascularized lower region of the epithelium
the dermis consists of two regions:
papillary and reticular
papillary layer:
consists of fingerlike projections called dermal papillae(responsible for fingerprints)
reticular layer
deepest layer; contains blood vessels, sweat and oil galnds, and deep pressure receptors
layer of adipose tissue found under the skin that anchers it to organs

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