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RU Art 427 History of Photography Midterm


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Camera Obscura
A darkened space (eventually made into a small box) where viewers could see an upside down image of the outside projected through a pinpoint light source on the opposite wall or side of the box.
William Henry Fox Talbot created the first "Negative/Positive" process where sensitized paper is exposed to a light source and then developed into a negative image. Subsequently, positives of this image were made from the negative by contact printing with another sheet of chemically treated paper. This was the first time multiple images could be created from one negative. Also called "Photogenic Drawing".
Fixing bath where chemicals are applied to sensitized paper to prevent further exposure to light.
An annual artistic show in Europe exhibiting traditional paintings, prints and sculptures of the time. Photography was not considered creative art, and was not included.
An image that is wider than what is normally taken with a standard camera. Originally, the camera was pivoted on a tripod to produce continuous overlapping views.
The film, plate or paper in a camera where the image is captured in the reverse tones of the original.
Also referred to as "print", the photographic image on a material having the same tones as the original.
Genre Hierarchy
In order of importance:
still life
Invented by Charles Deguerre, a laterally reversed, positive image on a chemically treated metal plate (usually copper) that has been fixed with hypo. The image usually has great detail and a grey to dark tonal range.
Latent Development
The development of an invisible image to a visible one produced on sensitized material such as a metal plate or plastic film
A darkened object showing the distinct outline and no interior features.
Wet Plate Process
Also called "Collodion Process", a glass plate is coated with a wet chemical mixture then inserted into a camera and exposed while still wet. It is then developed immediately.
Albumen Paper
Paper coated with an suspension of eggwhite and light sensitive chemicals where positive prints were made by exposing a negative against the paper to sunlight.
A small version of the original, attempting to be exact in every detail. Miniture portraits were common among the lower class.
Small callodion/albumen photographs on cards presented by the upper class upon arrival at a home or business. Similar to the modern business card.
The belief that physical characteristics were thought to convey aspects of one's personality, i.e. a large forehead implied intelligence.
A less expensive daguerrotype where a positive image was made in a camera and black lacquer was put on the back of the place.
Topographical Landscape
Landscape artwork that includes the following features:
Winding path into depth
Substitute spectator
Platform to enter the picture
Obvious foreground, middle and background
Often there is something to occupy interest such as a boat
An image that is soothing or pleasing to the eye, usually referring to landscapes and oftne containing one or more of the ideals for a topographical landscape
Wide-angle Lens
A lens designed to capture a wider view than a standard lens, used to produce panoramic views.
Composite Landscape
A landscape print using two or more nagatives to produce one final image. Often a negative of a pleasing sky was inserted into a landscape with an over-exposed sky.
Side by side images that simulate bifocal vision. One image is taken from a slightly different angle.
The theory that the beauty of a site is influenced by some historic event that has taken place there. i.e. battlegrounds
Geological Survey
A group of people, usually including a photographer venturing out into unchartered territory to collect information on the land and geology of the mountains to see what areas could be planned for development and/or railroads
The theory that mountains and other land formations were created in a more abrubt fashion, rather than over a long period of time, and were considered more "biblical" in formation.

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