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The Pharmacy Technician Chapter 7


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What route is intraocular?
What route is intranasal?
What route is buccal?
What route is sublingual?
What route is dermal?
What route is inhalation?
What route is oral?
What route is intravenous?
What route is intradermal?
What route is rectal?
What route is vaginal?
What route is subcutaneous?
What route is intramuscular?
What does enteric coating do for a drug?
It prevents the drug from being degraded by the stomach acid.
What is a tincture?
An alcoholic or hydroalcoholic solution of nonvolatile substances.
Why would a drug be administered via the rectum?
Either for a local effect or to avoid degradation caused by oral administration.
What would be the needle guage and length for a drug administered intravenously?
guage 16-20, length 1-1.5"
What would be the needle guage and length for a drug administered intramuscularly?
guage 19-22, length 1-1.5"
What would be the needle guage and length for a drug administered subcutaneously?
guage 24-27, length 3/8-1"
What would be the needle guage and length for a drug administered intradermally?
guage 25-26, length 3/8"
How long does it take for a drug that is administered intravenously to circulate thru the body?
20 seconds
What are colloids?
particles up to a hundred times smaller than those in suspensions, but are also suspended in a solution
What are the 2 types of emulsions?
oil-in-water and water-in-oil
How deep is a typical Z-track injection?
2-3 inches
What are the lacrimal canalicula?
the tear ducts
What is the conjunctiva?
the eyelid lining
What is the transcorneal transport?
drug transfer into the eye
What is the capacity of the adult nasal cavity?
about 20 mL
How would a drug that was administered intranasally cause a systemic effect?
amounts of the drug were swallowed
What are 3 ways that an intranasal dosage is lost?`
enzymes in the mucosa metabolize certain drugs, normal mucous flow removes drug, and amounts of the drug are swallowed
What is the critical factor with aerosol dosage forms?
particle size
What size particles in aerosol doses hit the back of the mouth and are eventually swallowed instead of inhaled?
20 micron particles
What size particles in aerosol doses reach the bronchioles?
particles from 1-10 microns
What size particles in aerosol doses penetrate to the alveolar sacs?
0.6 micron particles
What percentage of a person's weight does the skin account for?
about 17%
What is the major disadvantage of dermal administration?
the amount of drug that can be absorbed will be limited to about 2 mg/day
What is the general thickness of the skin?
3-5 mm
What is the stratum corneum?
The outer layer of epidermis
What is the turnover time from cell development to shedding of the dead cells for the stratum corneum?
about 21 days
What is an ointment?
drugs that have been incorporated into a base
What is a cream?
semisolid emulsions that are less viscous and lighter in texture than ointments, also disappear with rubbing
What is a gel?
a dispersion of solid drugs in a jelly-like vehicle
What is a lotion?
suspensions of solid drugs in an aqueous vehicle
What is a collodion?
a liquid preparation of pyroxylin dissolved in a solvent mixture of alcohol and ether
What is pyroxylin?
looks like raw cotton and is slowly but completely soluble in the solvent mixture
What is a liniment?
an alcoholic or oleaginous solution generally applied by rubbing
What is TSS?
Toxic Shock Syndrome, rare and potentially fatal disease that results from a severa bacterial infection of the blood
What is the Progestasert IUD?
intrauterine device that releases about 60 mcg of progesterone per day for 1 yr
What is the ParaGard?
an IUD that releases copper ions to prevent contraception and has been shown to be effective for several years
Needles sizes of ____ are commonly used for intravenous injections.
16 G - 20 G
Needles for intramuscular injections are generally ____G and ____ inches long.
19-22, 1-1.5
Which ophthalmic formulation will maintain the drug in contact with the eye the longest? solution, suspension, gel, or ointment
What is a slurry?
a thin, semi-fluid suspension of a solid in a liquid
How long do most gelling agents require to reach maximum viscosity and clarity?
12-24 hrs
What concentrations of gelling agents are typically used?
0.5% - 10%

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