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Bio 93 Lecture 1-3


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the study of cell structure
study of molecules and chemical processes (metabolism) of cells
Cell fractionation
takes cells apart and separate the major organelles from one another (centrifuge)
Organ, tissue, cell, molecule, atom (highest to lowest)
an organism's basic unit of structure and function

-lowest level of structure capable of performing all activities of life
open systems
-exchange energy and materials with surroundings

-energy exchange inovovles transformation of energy from one form to another
Eukaryotic Cells
-has a true nucleus
-region between nucleus and plasma membrane is cytoplasm
Prokaryotic Cells
-DNA is concentrated in the nucleoid but no membrane separates this region from the rest of the cell
Things Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Cells have in common
-plasma membrane
-inside the plamsma membrane is a semifluid substance called the cytosol where organelles are found
-carry chromosomes
-have ribosomes
Plasma Membrane
-held together by hydrophobic interactions, which are weaker than covalent bonds

⬢ Composition
-Lipids: phospholipids, main fabric of membrane
-Phospholipid tails- interior of membrane-hydrophobic
-Phospholipid heads- exterior- hydrophilic
Fluid Mosaic Model
the membrane is a fluid structure with a “mosaic” of various proteins in the double layer (bilayer) of phospholipids
carrier proteins
hold on to their passengers and change shape in a way that shuttles them across the membrane

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