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General Biology


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What are 3 characterisitics of the cell theory?
All living organisms are made of one or more cells

Cells are the smallest unit of life

cells produce cells
Define cytology.
study of cells
Define prokaryotic cell and give an example.
cells that have no true nucleus. ex. bacteria
Define Eukaryotic cell and give an example.
cells that have a true nucleus which contains the genetic material. plants and animals
Why are cells generally small?
for better communication

surface-area to volume-ratio As a cell grows its volume increases at a faster rate that its sruface area. the cells basically split apart.
Some cells which are larger have adapted by what? (3 things)
have more than one nucleus

actively move material around

are long and skinny
Name the 3 main characteristics of eukaryotic cells.
Plasma (cell) membrane- encloses a cell and seperates its contents from its surroundings

Nucleus-information center contains DNA

Cytoplasm-semi fluid material that fills the interior of the cell. It contains organelles which are cell parts that are surrounded by a membrane.
What is the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)? (5 characteristics)
large internal network of membranes

functions as channels and passageways for proteins and lipids to move in the cell

serves as a site fore chemical reactions

can form compartments and vesicles (sacs)

found in plant and animal cells
What is a ribosome?

How does it function?
complex assemblies of protein and RNA

it synthesizes (assembles) proteins
Define smooth ER.
has no ribosomes attached* and functions in synthesis of lipids and detoxification of drugs
Define rough ER.
has ribosomes on surface* and functions to export assembled proteins from the cell
In one word define the Golgi Apparatus.
What is the funciton of the Golgi Apparatus?
functions in the collection, packaging and distribution of molecules (sugars, proteins, and lipids) synthesized in one place in the cell and used in another
What were the 2 examples given in class for the Golgi Apparatus?
glycoprotein (sugar plus protein) or glycolipid (sugar plus lipid)

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