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Ch. 7 Bio


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made of RNA and Protein
carry out protein synthesis
found in the cytoplasm
endomembrane system
regulates protein traffic and performs metabolic functions in the cell. Includes Golgi, ER, Lysosomes and vacuoles
Endoplasmic Reticulum
accounts for more than half of membranes in euk cells. Continuous with nuclear membrane
Smooth ER
synthesizes lipids, detoxifies poisons, stores calcium and metabolizes carbohydrates
Rough ER
Produces proteins and membranes that are distributed by transport vesicles
Golgi Apparatus
Made of flattened sacs (cisternae). Receives and modifies products of the ER. Manufactures certain macromolecules
cis face
receiving side of golgi apparatus
trans face
shipping side of golgi apparatus
membranous sac of hydrolytic enzymes that digest macromolecules by fusing with them
intercellular digestion--forms food vacuoles
recycle the cell's own organic materials by fusing with vesicles containing damaged organelles
membrane bound sacs within cell--like vessicles but bigger
contractile vacuoles
pump excess water out of protist cells (single celled orgs)
central vacuoles
plants only- storage centers for important organic molecules and water
Nuclear envelope+rough ER+smooth ER
nuclear envelope is connected to the rough ER which is continuous with the smooth ER
membranes and proteins produced by the ER move to the golgi by means of vessicles
golgi pinches of vessicles which form lysosomes and vacuoles
lysosome fuses with vessicle for digestion
vessicles+plasma membrane
transport vessicles move materials to plasma membrane to be exported
plasma membrane expands due to vessicle fusion, proteins are secreted from the cell
sites of cellular respiration: have a smooth outer membrane,inner membrane, matrix (with mitochondrial DNA and ribosomes and folds (cristae))
site of photosynthesis, relative of plastids. composed of thylakoids, membrane sacs (a stack is called granum), and stroma, fluid. have chlorophyll
contain an enzyme that transfers hydrogen from various substrates to oxygen
Produces hydrogen peroxide, converts peroxide to water
network of fibers throughout cytoplasm that organize cell activity and maintain structure
motor proteins
attach to receptors on organelles and walk the organelles along microtubules and filaments.
shape the cell, guide movement of organelles, help separate chromosome copies in dividing cells
microtubule organizing center. microtubules grow out and resist compression.
microtubules make up centrioles. numerous centrioles= centrosomes
cilia and flagella
locomotors with special arrangements of microtubules. share a common ultrastructure. Flagella- undulates like a snake.(Par) Cilia- back and forth motion that propels. (perp)
protein responsible for the movement of cilia and flagella. dynein arms of one microtubule doublet push the other one up. restrained by protein, so they bend
built from molecules of the protein actin, found in microvilli. also contain myosin if they participate in cell motility. contraction of these filaments is how an amoeba moves
cytoplasmic streaming
form of locomotion created by microfilaments
intermediate filaments
support cell shape, fix organelles in place
extracellular (outside membrane)
help cells work together. plant= cell wall, animal= extracellular matrix. SUPPORT, ADHESION, REGULATION, and MOVEMENT
extracellular:plant cell wall
cellulose fibers embedded in other polysaccharides and proteins. may have multiple layers
extracellular:animal matrix
made up of glycoproteins and other macromolecules
lead to tissues-> organs etc
channels that perferate plant cell walls
(animals)tight junctions
membranes of two cells are tightly bound by proteins. nothing leaks between the two.
(animals) desmosomes
fasten cells together in firm sheets
(animals) gap junctions
provide cytoplasmic channels. consists of special membrane proteins that surround a pore

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