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Psychology Terms for Exam


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law of parsimony
accepting the simplest explanation that requires the least amount of assumptions.
statistically significant
a statistical statement of how likely an obtained result occured by chance.
surveys or observations that show how well a trait or behavior accompanies another.
experimental results caused by expectations - fake drug.
studying by "looking inside".
william james
philosopher/psychologist - who studied functionalism
wilhelm wundt
established 1st psychology lab trying to measure the time lag between one hearing a ball hit the ground and them pressing a button.
max wertheimer
gestalt psychologist - colleagues kofkan and kohler - all three worked on animals, specifically apes, to study insight - an intuitive and clear perception of something or situation.
john watson
"little albert" experiment - behaviorist.
mary whiton culkins
student of william james at harvard in the 1800's - james didn't give her her phd because she was a woman - later became distinguished memory researcher and first female president at the american psychological department.
sigmund freud
german physician who developed a personality theory - how our emotional responses to our childhood experiences and our unconscious thought processes affect our behavior.
school of psychology - studied insight - how the mind organizes feelings into perception.
school of psychology - edward titchener - studied introspection to explore elemental structure of the human mind.
school of psychology - john watson, b.f. skinner - studied behavior by observation.
school of psychology - william james - studied how mental and behavioral processes function.
school of psychology - sigmund freud - studied the unconscious of innate issues, dreams, childhood experiences, and internal forces.
physicians who provide medical treatment as well as psychological therapy.
clinical psychologist
studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders.
counseling psychologist
assisting people with problems in school, work, marriage, etc. and to achieve a greater well-being.
forensic psychologist
psychologist who deals with legal issues.
case study
study one individual in depth in hope that it will reveal things about all of us.
correlational study
to collect two factors, which may not be related at all, and see if they are.
naturalistic oberservation
watching and recording one's behavior in thier natural enviornment without trying to control or manipulate the situation.
a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors to observe the effect on some other factor.
independent variable
the experimental factor that is manipulated - the effect of the variable being studied. ex) breast milk or formula.
dependent variable
the outcome factor - the variable that may change in response to manipulations of independent variable. ex) child's intelligence score.
experimental variable
when a double-blind procedure is done - the participants are exposed to the treatment.
control group
the opposite of experimental - participants are not exposed to the treatment - as a way to evaluate the effect of treatment.
representative sample
unbiased samples to represent a population.
operational definition
a statement of the procedures used to define research variables. ex) human intelligence is defined as what an intelligence test measures.
extraneous variable
extra variables that can influence results in an experiment.
a testable prediction, often implied by theory.
a change in behavior due to experience.
biological processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, not influenced by experiences.
ivan pavlov
explored classical conditioning - dog salivating experiment.
john watson 2
"little albert" experiment - believed that human emotions and behavior, although biologically influenced, are mainly a bunch of conditioned responses.
rosalie rayner
worked with watson on "little albert" experiment later having an affair with watson - losing his professorship at john hopkins university - later they married.
b.f. skinner
designed operant chamber - "skinner box" - rat presses bad to get food - used shaping - reinforcers to guide animals.
edward tolman
behaviorist - worked with rats in wagon - mapping and implicit learning.
albert bandura
pioneer researcher in oberservational learning - "bobo doll" experiment.
classical conditioning
someone or something learns to associate stimuli with a natural response.
operant conditioning
behavior is strengthened when reinforced or weakened when punished.
respondant conditioning
goes with classical - have no choice but to respond.
instrumental conditioning
goes with operant - you have to do something in order get "x".
learned stimulus no longer triggers natural response.
spontaneous recovery
conditioned response all of a sudden comes back.
responding to similar stimuli.
only respond to learned stimulus not one that is similar.
a learned issue.
intermittent reinforcement
reinforcing a response only part of the time.
continuous reinforcement
reinforcing the desired response everytime it occurs.
fixed-ratio reinforcement
reinforces reward only after a specific # of responses.
variable-ratio reinforcement
reinforces reward after a random # of responses.
fixed-interval reinforcement
reinforces a reward only after a specific time has elapsed.
variable-interval reinforcement
reinforces a reward at unpredictable time intervals.
primary reinforcer
innately reinforcing stimulus.
secondary reinforcer
conditioned reinforcers
positive reinforcer
increases behavior by presenting positive stimuli - food.
negative reinforcer
increases behavior by stopping negative stimuli - shock.
an event that decreases behavior it follows.
latent learning
learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is incentive to do it.
observational learning
learning by observing others.
the process of observing and imitating specific behavior.
sudden realization of a solution to a problem.
using reinforcers to gradually guide an organism toward the desired behavior.
serial enumeration
making a list in order of sequence.
hermann ebbinghaus
german philosopher and pioneering researcher of verbal memory. formed a list of all nonsense syllables and put a vowel between each set - to study a different type of learning.
elizabeth loftus
showed how eyewitnesses reconstruct their memories when questioned - misinformation effect.
george miller
"magic number seven, plus or minus two" - short-term memory recall capacity - stores just sevens and other bits of information.
need only identify items previously learned - multiple choice test.
free recall
retrieve information learned earlier - fill-in-the-blank test.
paired associative learning
learning that certain events occur together.
serial learning
remembering the last and first items better than they do the those in the middle.
the retention of programmed information over time.
the processing of information into the memory system
the process of getting information out of memory storage.
the conscious repitition of information - either to maintain it in the consciousness or to encode it for storage.
primary memory
ability to store and retreive information.
sensory memory
immediate recording of sensory information in the memory storage.
relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of memory system - knowledge, skills, experiences.
memory that holds a few items briefly - phone number while dialing.
organizing items into familiar, manageable units - often occurs automatically.
elaborative rehearsal
learning by connecting it to other stuff and making sense of it.
forgetting - absent mindness
inattention to details produces poor encoding.
forgetting - transcience
storage decay over time - unused information fades.
forgetting - blocking
inaccessibility of storage information.
kind of forgetting
fading, disuse, interference.
poor encoding
never really put it in your memory - never made it meanigful - poorly put it - hard to get out or remember.
distortion - misattribution
confusing source of information - putting words in someone's mouth.
distortion - suggestability
misinformation - asking misleading questions.
distortion - bias
colored recollections - using a color to describe feelings about a person.
proactive interference
disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information.
retroactive interference
disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information.
positive transfer
old information can help our learning of new information.
negative transfer
old information can make it difficult and interfere with learning new information.
richard atkinson and richard shiffrin
theory of "three-stage processing" model of sensory, short-term, long term memory.
implicit memory
retention independent of conscious recollection - procedural memory.
explicit memory
memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and declare - declarative memory.
semantic encoding
the encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words - verbal.
episodic memory
memory of an event as opposed to words or ideas.
flashbulb memory
a clear memory of an emotional significant moment or event.
tip of the tongue.
false memories - state dependent memories
what we learned in an emotional state is sometimes more easily revealed when we are again in that state.
false memories - relearning
we relearn things more quickly than when we learn them the first time. we often remember more than we recall.
false memories - priming
the process of activating, often unconscioulsy association.
false memories - mood congruent
moods bias our memories
memory aids - mnemonic devices
memory device that use vivid imagery and organizational devices.
memory aids - loci effect
using mnemonic device of images to remember list of things - associating them with what's in the house.
memory aids - halo effect
in essay question put response in logical order - look like a good student - angel.
memory aids - peg-word system
"ten is hen" "nine is line" - associating things by rhyming.

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