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mgt exam 1 ch 1-6 definitions


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organizational behavior
the field that seeks increased knowledge of all aspects of behavior in organizational settings through the use of the scientific method
behavioral science
fields such as psychology and sociology that seek knowledge of human behavior and society through the use of the scientific method
theory x
a traditional philosophy of management suggesting that most people are lazy and irresponsible and will work hard only when forced to do so
theory y
a philosophy of management suggesting that under the right circumstances people are fully capable of working productively and accepting responsibility for their work.
Open systems-
sel-sustaining systems that transform input from the external environment into output, which the system then returns to the environment
contingency approach
a perspective suggesting that organizational behavior is affected by a large number of interacting factors. How someone will behave is said to be contingent upon many different variables at once
time-and-motion study
a type of applied research designed to classify and streamline the individual movements needed to perform jobs with the intent of finding “the one best way” to perform them.
Scientific management
an early approach to management and organizational behavior emphasizing the important of designing jobs as efficiently as possible
human relations movement
a perspective on organizational behavior that rejects the primarily economic orientation of scientific management and recognizes, instead, the importance of designing jobs as efficiently as possible
Hawthorne studies
the earliest systematic research in the field of OB, this work was performed to determine how the design of work environments affected performance.
Division of labor
the practice of dividing work into specialized tasks that enable people to specialize in what they do best
an organizational design developed by Max Weber the attempts to make organizations operate efficiently by having a clear hierarch of authority in which people are required to perform well-defined jobs
the process of interconnecting the world’s people with respect to the cultural, economic, political, technological, and environmental aspects of their lives
multinational enterprises (MNEs)
organizations that have significant operations spread throughout various nations by are headquartered in a single country
people who are citizens of one country but who are living and working in another country
the set of values, customs, and beliefs that people have in common with other members of a social unit (e.g., a nation).
Culture shock
the tendency for people to become confused and disoriented as they attempt to adjust to a new culture
the process of readjusting to one’s own culture after spending time away from it
convergence hypothesis
a biased approach to the study of management, which assumes that principles of good management are universal, and that ones that work well in the US will apply equally well in other nations
divergence hypothesis
the approach to the study of management that recognizes that knowing how to manage most effectively requires clear understanding of the culture in which people work.
Child-care facilities
sites at or near company locations where parents can leave their children while they are working
elder-care facilities-
facilities at which employees at work can leave elderly relatives for whom they are responsible (such as parents and grandparents).
Baby boom generation
the generation of children born in the economic boom period following WW2
personal support policies
widely varied practices that help employees meet the demands of their family lives, freeing them to concentrate on their work
the process by which workers manipulate objects by “inserting date” between themselves and those objects
the process of adjusting downward the number of employees needed to work in newly designed organizations (also known as rightsizing)
the process of eliminating those parts of organizations that focus on noncore sectors of the business (i.e., tasks that are peripheral to the organization) and hiring outside firms to perform these functions instead
core competency
an organization’s key capability, what it does best
virtual corporation
a highly flexible, temporary organization formed by a group of companies that join forces to exploit a specific opportunity
telecommunting (teleworking)
the practice of using communications technology so as to enable work to be performed from remote locations, such as the home
flextime programs
policies that give employees some discretion over when they can arrive and leave work, thereby making it easier to adapt their work schedules to the demands of their personal lives
contingent workforce
- people hired by organizations temporarily to work as needed for finite periods of time
compressed workweeks
- the practice of working fewer days each week but longer hours each day (e.g., four 10-hr days).
Job sharing
- a form of regular part-time work in which pairs of employees assume the duties of a single job, splitting its responsibilities, salary, an benefits in proportion to the time worked
voluntary reduced work time (V-time) programs
- programs that allow employees to reduce the amount of time they work by a certain amount (typically 10 or 20 percent), with a proportional reduction in pay.
Total quality management (TQM)
- an organizational strategy of commitment to improving customer satisfaction by developing techniques to carefully manage output quality
- the process of comparing one’s own products or services with the bet from others.
Quality control audits-
careful examinations of how well a company is meeting its standards
Malcolm Baldrige Quality Award
- an award given annually to American companies that practice effective quality management an make significant improvements in the quality of their goods and services
- unsafe and uncomfortable factories where people work long hours for low wage making clothing
corporate social responsibility
- business decision making linked to ethical values, compliance with legal requirements, and respect for individuals the community at large, and the environment. It involves operating a business in a manner that meets or exceeds the ethical, legal, and public expectations that society has of business.
Ethics officers
- individuals (usually at the vice presidential level) who oversee the ethics of a company’s operations
code of ethics
- a document describing what an organization stands for and the general rules of conduct it expects of its employees (e.g., to avoid conflicts of interest, to be honest, etc.).
ethics audit-
the process of actively investigating and documenting incidents of dubious ethical value within a company
social perception
the process of combining, integrating, and interpreting information about others to gain an accurate understanding of them
- the process through which individuals attempt to determine the causes behind others’ behavior
personal identity
- the characteristics that define a particular individual
social identity
- who a person is, as defined in terms of his or her membership in various social groups
social identity theory-
a conceptualization recognizing that the way we perceive others and ourselves is based on both our unique characteristics (see personal identity) and our membership in various groups (see social identity)
correspondent inferences-
judgments about people’s dispositions, traits, characteristics that correspond to what we have observed of their actions
internal causes of behavior-
explanations based on actions for which the individual is responsible
external causes of behavior
explanations based on situations over which the individual has no control
Kelly’s theory of causal attribution
the approach suggesting that people will believe others’ actions to be caused by internal or external factors based on three types of information: consensus, consistency, and distinctiveness
in Kelley’s theory of causal attribution, information regarding the extent to which other people behave in the same manner as the person being judged
in Kelley’s theory of causal attribution, information regarding the extent to which the person being judged acts th e same way at other times
in Kelley’s theory of causal attribution, information regarding the extent to which a person behaves in the same manner in other contexts
beliefs that all members of specific groups share similar traits and are prone to behave the same way
perceptual biases
predispositions that people have to misperceive others in various ways. Types include the fundamental attribution of error, the halo effect, the similar-to-me-effect, the selective perception, and first-impression error
fundamental attribution error-
the tendency to attribute others’ actions to internal causes (e.g., their traits) which largely ignoring external factors that also may have influenced behavior.
Halo effect-
the tendency for our overall impressions of others to affect objective evaluations of their specific traits; perceiving high correlations between characteristics that may be unrelated
similar-to-me effect
the tendency for people to perceive in a positive light others who are believed to be similar to themselves in any of several different ways.
Selective perception
the tendency to focus on some aspects of the environment while ignoring others
first-impression error
the tendency to base our judgments of others on our earlier impressions of them
self-fulfilling prophecy
the tendency for someone’s expectations about another to cause that person to behave in a manner consistent with those expectations. This can be either positive (see the pygmalion effect) or negative (see the Golem effect) in nature
pygmalion effect
a positive instance of the self-fulfilling prophecy, in which people holding high expectations of another tend to improve that individual’s performance
Golem effect
a negative instance of the self-fulfilling prophecy, in which people holding low expectations of another tend to lower that individual’s performance
- the process through which people select, organize, and interpret information
performance appraisal
- the process of evaluating employees on various work-related dimensions
impression management
- efforts by individuals to improve how they appear to others
corporate image
- the impressions that people have of an organization
operant conditioning/instrumental conditioning
- the form of learning in which people associate the consequences of their actions with the actions themselves. Behaviors with positive consequences are acquired; behaviors with negative consequences tend to be eliminated
law of effect
- the tendency for behaviors leading to desirable consequences to be strengthened and those leading to undesirable consequences to be weakened
positive reinforcement
the process by which people learn to perform behaviors that lead to the presentation of desired outcomes
negative reinforcement/avoidance
the process by which people learn to perform acts that lead to the removal of undesired events
- decreasing undesirable behavior by following it with undesirable consequences
the process through which responses that are no longer reinforced tend to gradually diminish in strength
contingencies of reinforcement
the various relationships between one’s behavior and the consequences of that behavior– positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, punishment, and extinction
schedules of reinforcement
rules governing the timing and frequency of the administration of reinforcement
continuous reinforcement
a schedule of reinforcement in which all desired behaviors are reinforced
partial reinforcement/intermittent reinforcement
a schedule of reinforcement in which only some desired behaviors are reinforced. Types include fixed interval, variable interval, fixed ratio, and variable ratio
fixed interval schedules
schedules of reinforcement in which a fixed period of time must elapse between the administration of reinforcements
variable interval schedules
schedules of reinforcement in which a variable period of time (based on some average) must elapse between the administration of reinforcements
fixed ratio schedules
schedules of reinforcements in which a fixed number of responses must occur between the administration of reinforcements
variable ratio schedules- schedules of reinforcement in which a variable number of responses (based on some average) must occur between the administration of reinforcements
observational learning/modeling
the form of learning in which people acquire new behaviors by systematically observing the rewards and punishments given to others
the process of systematically teaching employees to acquire and improve job-related skills and knowledge
classroom training
formal training in which instructors describe various job requirements and provide tips on how to meet them
apprenticeship programs
formal training programs involving both on-the-job and classroom training usually over a long period; often used for training people in the skilled trades
cross-cultural training (CCT)
a systematic way of preparing employees to live and work in another country
executive training programs
sessions in which companies systematically attempt to develop their tope leaders, either in specific skills or general managerial skills
corporate universities
centers devoted to handling a company’s training needs on a full- time basis
- active involvement in the process of learning; more active participation leads to more effective learning
the process of repeatedly performing a task so that it may be learned
transfer of training
the degree to which the skills learned during training sessions may be applied to performance of one’s job
knowledge of the results of one’s behavior
360-degree feedback
the practice of collecting performance feedback from multiple sources at a variety of organizational levels
training based on disseminating info online, such as through the internet or a company’s internal intranet
skill-based pay
an innovative reward system in which people are paid based on the number of diff skills they have learned relevant to performing one or more jobs in the organization
team-based rewards
innovative reward systems in which employees are paid on the basis of their team’s performance
organizational behavior management/organizational behavior modification (OB Mod)
the practice of altering behavior in organizations by systematically administering rewards
the process of systematically administering punishment
progressive discipline
the practice of gradually increasing the severity of punishments for employees who exhibit unacceptable job behavior
knowledge management
the process of gathering, organizing, and sharing a company’s info and knowledge assets
intellectual capital
areas of expertise represented by the employees within a company
knowledge managers
individuals who are responsible for organizing the wealth of corporate knowledge represented by its people and ensuring that this info gets used effectively
chief knowledge officer (CKO)
A senior-level executive who is responsible for knowledge management within his or her company (see knowledge management)
knowing-doing gap
the tendency for employees to refrain from using the knowledge that’s available to them in their company, leading to poor performance
the unique and relatively stable patterns of behavior, thoughts, and emotions shown by individuals
interactionist perspective
the view that behavior is a result of a complex interplay between personality and situational factors
person-job fit
the extent to which individuals possess the traits and competencies required to perform specific jobs
objective tests
questionnaires and inventories designed to measure various aspects of personality
the extent to which a test yields consistent scores on various occasions
- the extent to which a test actually measures what it claims to measure
big five dimensions of personality
- five basic dimensions of personality that are assumed to underlie many specific traits (conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, emotional stability, openness to experience)
positive affectivity
- the tendency to experience positive moods and feelings in a wide range of settings and under many different conditions
negative affectivity
the tendency to experience negative moods in a wide range of settings and under many different conditions
individuals’ beliefs concerning their ability to perform specific tasks successfully
general self-efficacy-
people’s overall beliefs about their general capacity to perform tasks successfully
a personality trait involving the extent to which individuals adapt their behavior to the demands of specific situations so as to make good impressions on others
a personality trait involving willingness to manipulate others for one’s own purposes
Type A behavior pattern
a pattern of behavior involving high levels of competitiveness, time urgency, and irritability
Type B behavior pattern
a pattern of behavior characterized by a casual, laid-back style; the opposite of the Type A
achievement motivation/need for achievement
the strength of an individual’s desire to excel– to succeed at difficult tasks and to do them better than other persons
morning person
individuals who feel most energetic and alert early in the day
evening person
individuals who feel most energetic and alert late in the day
mental and physical capacities to perform various tasks
cognitive intelligence
the ability to understand complex ideas, to adapt effectively to the environment, to learn from experience, to engage in various forms of reasoning, and to overcome obstacles by careful thought
information processing
- cognitive effort involving the combination, integration, and use of complex information
practical intelligence
adeptness at solving the practical problems of everyday life
tacit knowledge
knowledge about how to get things done
emotional intelligence (EQ)
a cluster of skills relating to the emotional side of life (e.g., the ability to recognize and regulate one’s own emotions, to influence those of others, and to self-motivate).
Successful intelligence
intelligence that represents a good balance between cognitive intelligence (IQ), practical intelligence, and creative intelligence
physical abilities
people’s capabilities to engage in the physical tasks required to perform a job
simple graphic representations of facial expressions created by typing characters such as commas, hyphens, and parentheses used to express emotions
display rules
cultural norms about the appropriate ways to express emotions
an unfocused, relatively mild feeling that exists as background to our daily experiences

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