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Bio 4


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A water insoluable phosophlipid structure.
Plasma membrane
What three statements constitute cells theory?
Cells are the fundamental units of life, all organisms are composed of cells, all cells come from preexisting cells.
Cell-like agregates that can maintain internal cheimcal environments but cannot reproduce.
What theory is suggested for the origin of cells?
Bubble theory
Why is the surface area-to-volume ration important?
Cells can't get too big because there needs to be enough membrane to regulate the goingons of the inside of the cells.
The distance apart two objects must be in order for them to be distinguished as separate.
Do Prokaryotes or Eukaryotes inhabit a wide range of environmental extremes?
Prokaryotes or Eukaryotes have smaller cells?
Prokaryotes or Eukaryotes are always single celled?
What are the parts of a prokartyote?
nucleoid, membrane, cytosol, and ribosomes
What is the function of ribosomes?
Protein synthesizers
Prokaryotes or Eukaryotes are more structurily complex?
Found in the cell walls of most basteria but not archaea.
These slimy layers protect bacteria from white blood cells.
Where is photosynthesis carried out in bacteria?
In the plasma membrane
Internal membrane folds that remain attached to the plasma membrane and function in cell division or energy releasing activities.
Hairlike things that surround the outside of the bacteria and adhere to eachother during mating and to animal cells for protection and food.
What is the role of the nucleus?
It contains most of the cell's genetic materials and duplicateds genetic materials
What is the role of the mitochondrion?
It converts stored energy into a more useful form called ATP and also converts amino acids and fatty acids.
Proteins are packaged and sent to appropriate locations in the cell.
ER and Golgi apparatus
Celular digestive systems in which large molecules are hydrolyzed into usable monomers.
lysosomes and vacuoles
What are the role of chloroplasts
The process of taking apart cells
cell fractionation
What are three roles of the nucleus?
Site of DNA duplication and is the site of genetic control of the cells activites.
What is the role of the nucleolus?
Begins the assembly of ribosomes from specific proteins and RNA.
Two membranes that surround the nucleus.
The nuclear envelope
Connect the interior of the nuceleus with the cytoplasm.
nuclear pores
Thin threadlike structures that agregate to form chromosomes.
The water and dissolved substances that surround the chromatin.
A network of apparently structural proteins that organize the chromatin.
nuclear matrix
Where are ribosomes found in prokaryotic cells?
Where are ribosomes found in eukaryotic cells?
cytoplasm and rough er
What is the function of ribosome?
to synthesize proteins under the direction of nucleic acids
Ribosomes are larger in proks or euks?
What are the two main components of the endomembrane system?
the ER and Golgi appartatus
Tiny membrane surrounded droplets that appear to shuttle between various components of the endomembrane system.
Interconnected membranes branching through the cytoplasm in euk cells
What is the function of rough ER?
Transports proteins within the cell, serves as a place to modify proteins.
What is the name of the interior compartment of ER?
What is the function of smooth ER?
chemically modifies proteins and small molecules taken in by the cell, is the site for the hydrolysis of gylcogen in animal cells, is the site for the synthesis of lipids and steroids
What are the functions of the golgi bodies?
Receives and may further modify protein from the ER, packages and sorts proteins, synthesizes polysaccharides for plant cell walls.
The "carriage" for proteins between the ER and the golgi bodies.
What are the function of lysosomes?
Digestive enzymes the hydroloze macromolecules into their monomers
When are picket forms in the plasma membrane and encolses material from outside the cell.
A process in the lysosomes where the cell digests its own material.
Which kind of euk cell does not contain lysosomes?
What is the function of the mitochondria?
to convert the potential chemical enrgy of fuel molecules into a form the cell can use (ATP)
The production of ATP in the mitchodria.
ceullular respiration
Folds of mitochondria's inner membrane.
The region enclosed by the inner membrane of a mitochondria.
mitochondrial matrix
plastids perform which role in the cell?
The internal membranes of chloroplasts
flat, closely packed, circular compartments the make up a grana
the fluid the grana are suspended in
The relationship between an animal and its "guest" chloroplast.
What are three types of plastids?
chloroplast, chromoplasts, leucoplasts
What theory may explain the origin of mitochondria and cholorplasts?
In the Endosymbiosis theory, what did chloroplasts and mitochondria descend from?
Organelles that collect toxic peroxides.
An organelle that converts stored lipids into carbohydrates for transport to growing cells.
What are some functions of a vacuole?
storage, structure, reproduction, and digestion
Long thin fibers in that provide support in the eukaryotic cytoplasm
What kind of protein are microfilaments assembled from?
What are two roles of microfilaments?
to help the entire cell or parts of the cell move and to stabalize cell shape
Protein that interacts with actin to conract muscles
what kind of protein are microtubules assembled from?
Specialized molecules that use energy to change their shape and move.
motor proteins
How are microtubulues arranged in a typical cilium or eukaryotic flagellum?
9+2 arrangement

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