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Anatomy Chapter 3: Body Tissues


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types of tissues
epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous
where is epitheial tissue found?
all free body surfaces; lining, covering, and glandular tissue of the body
functions of epithelial tissue
protection: skin
absorbtion: digestive track
secretion: endocrine system
filtration: urinary system; kidneys
characteristics of epithelium
fit closely together to form continuous sheets
have one free surface or edge
rest on basement membranes
avascular: have no blood supply of their own
regenerate easily
classification of epithelium
1st name: # of layers
2nd name: type
simple epithelium
one layer
stratified epithelium
multiple layers
basal layer
basement, bottom layer
simple epithelia are concerned with 3 functions:
absorbtion, secretion, filtration
simple squamous epithelium
simgle layer, thin squamous cells
--forms membranes, lines capilaries
--found in lungs, walls of capilaries--> to produce greater absorbtion levels
simple cuboidal epithelium
one layer
--found in glands and ducts
--secretion, filtration
--kidney tubules, ovary covering
simple columnar epithelium
one layer, tall cells
fit closely together
goblet cells: produce mucus
--line the digestive track
pseudostratified columnar epithelium
--rests on basement membrane. varied cell sizes
--absorbtion and secretion
--looks like there are two layers, really only one layer
--ciliated-- respiratory tract
stratified squamous epithelium
several layers
found on sites with a lot of friction--> skin, mouth, esophagus,
flattened cells
stratified cubiodal and stratified columnar
found in the ducts of large glands
transitional epithelium
lining of bladder, ureters, urethra
many layered
shape depends on the amount of stretching
glandular epithelium
funcion: to secrete
endocrine gald:
secrete directly to the blood vessels
secretions empty through ducts
--sweat, oil glands
Connective tissue
bone, tendons, ligaments, cartilage, blood
connective tissue is involved in
protecting, supporting, and building together
extracellular matrix
non living material that surrounds the connective tissue
--mostly water and fibers that have been secreted by cells
fibers of the matrix of the connective tissue
collagen: high tensile strength
elastic: strechy, recoils
reticular: fine, form soft organs
purpose of matrix:
hard matrix: calcium salts, collagen fibers
used to protect and suport
circular looking
flexible, found in a few places
elastic- returns to origional shape
hyaline cartilage
fetus are made of this--> most common cartilage
rubbery matrix--> collagen fibers
dense connective tissue
matrix: collagen fibers, fibroblasts
--forms strong, ropelike structures
--forms tendons and ligaments
--tendons (attach muscles to bones)
--ligaments (attach bones to bones at joints)
--strong material
areolar tissue
acts like a sponge
distributed everywhere
contain all fibers
soaks up excess fluid
adipose tissue
matrix: areolar tisse -- fat globules dominated
serves as a site of fat storage
reticular connective tissue
delicate interwoven fibers
form internal framework
lymphatic organs are made of this
matrix: fluid (blood plasma)--water and dissolved solutes
transport vehicle for mateials
fibers only visible during clotting
muscle tissue
used to contract
skeletal muscle
function: voluntary movement control
location: everywhere
cells: long, striated, multi-nucleus, run parallel to one another
cardiac muscle
function: pumps blood as it contracts
location: heart
cells: striated, short, close together, gap junctions, involuntary control, single nucleus, intercalated disks
smooth muscle
function: contract and dialtate to move substances down the directed pathway , involuntary
location: found in walls of hollow organs
cells: not striped, single nucleus
nervous tissue:
major functions: irratability and conductivity
supporting cells
surrounding tissue of neurons
function: insulate, support, protect the neurons
tissue repair
connective and epithelial--> regenerate easily
nervous and muscle--> do not regenerate easily
replacement of material with the same type of cells
formation of scar tissue (dense connective tissue)
after tissue injury
capilaries become permeable-->area is walled off
granulation tissue forms--> delicate, pink, made of new capilaries
surface epithelium forms-- scab detaches, scar forms

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