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AP Government Vocabs Chapter 3


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A way of organizing a nation so that two or more levels of government have formal authority over the same land and people. It is a system of shared power between units of government.
A way of organizing a nation so that all power resides in the central government.
Unitary Governments
The workings of the federal system - teh entire set of interactions among national, state, and local governments.
Intergovernmental Relations
Artical VI of the Constitution, which makes the Constitution, national laws, and treaties supreme over state laws when the national government is acting withen its constitutional limits.
Supremacy Clause
The constitutional amendment stating that "The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the people."
Tenth Amendment
An 1819 Supreme Court decision that established the supremacy of the national government over the state governments.
McCulloch v. Maryland
Powers of the federal governments that are specifically addressed in the Constitution; for Congress, these powers are listed in Article I, Section 8, and include the power to coin money, regulate its value, and impose taxes.
Enumerated Powers
Powers of the federal government that go beyond those enumerated in the Constitution. The Constitution states that Congress has the power to "make all laws necessary and proper for carrying into execution" the powers enumerated in Article I.
Implied Powers
The final paragraph of Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution, which authorizes Congress to pass all laws "necessary and proper" to carry out the enumerated powers.
Elastic Clause
A landmark case decided in 1824 in which the Supreme Court interpreted very broadly the clause in Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution giving Congress the power to regulate interstate commerce, encompassing virtually every form of commercial activit
Gibbons V. Ogden
A clause in Article IV, Section I, of the Constitution requiring each state to recognize the official documents and civil judgments rendered by the courts of other states.
Full Faith and Credit Clause
A legal process whereby an alleged crminal offender is surrendered by the officials of one state to officials of the state in which the crime is alleged to have been committed.
A clause in Article IV, Section 2, of the Constitution according citizens of each state most of the privileges of citizens of other states.
Privileges and Immunities
A system of government in which both the states and the national government remain supreme within their own spheres, each responsible for some policies.
Dual Federalism
A system of government in which powers and policy assignments are shared between states and the national government. They may also share costs, administration, and even blame for programs that work poorly.
Cooperative Federalism
The pattern of spending, taxing, and providing grants in the federal system; it is the cornerstone of the national government's relations with state and local governments.
Fiscal Federalism
Federal grants that can be used only for specific purposes, or "categories," of state and local spending. They come with strings attached, such as nondiscrimination provisions.
Categorical Grants
Federal categorical grants given for specific purposes and awarded on the basis of the merits of applications.
Project Grants
Federal categorical grants distributed according to a formula specified in legislation or in administrative regulations.
Formula Grants
Federal grants given more or less automatically to states or communities to support broad programs in areas such as community development and social services.
Block Grants

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