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Chemistry in the Environment Quiz 6


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The planet Venus has a very thick layer of carbon dioxide in its atmosphere, while Mars has nearly none. The temperature of the atmosphere on Venus is most likely to be (high/low).
State the first two laws of thermodynamics in practical terms which your grandparents might understand.
A THERMODYNAMIC SYSTEM is one that interacts and exchanges energy with the area around it. The exchange and transfer need to happen in at least two ways, at least one must be the transfer of heat. If the system is in EQUILIBRIUM, it can't change it's state or status without interacting with its environment. We mean that if you're in equilibrium, you're a "happy system", just minding your own business. You can't really do anything. If you do, you have to interact with the world around you.

We're not really sure why this law is the zeroth. We think scientists had "One" and "Two" for a long time, but this new one was so important it should come before the others. And Voila! Law Number Zero! Enough babbling. Here's what it says . . . When two systems are sitting in equilibrium with a third system, they are also in THERMAL EQUILIBRIUM with each other.

In English. System One and Two are each in equilibrium with Three. That means One and Two have to be in equilibrium with each other. It's like a logical argument. If "A" and "B" are true, then "C" must be true.

Forward to number one! The first law states that when heat is added to a system, some of that energy stays in the system and some leaves the system. The energy that leaves does work on the area around it. Energy that stays in the system creates an increase in the internal energy of the system.

In English. You have a pot of water at room temperature. You add some heat to the system. First, the temperature and energy of the water increases. Second, the system releases some energy and it works on the environment (maybe heating the air around the water, making the air rise).

The big finish! The second law explains that it is impossible to have a CYCLIC process that converts heat completely into work. It is also impossible to have a process that transfers heat from cool objects to warm objects without using work.

In English. That first part of the law says no reaction is 100% efficient. Some amount of energy in a reaction is always lost to heat. Also, a system can not convert all of its energy to working energy. The second part of the law is pretty obvious . . . a cold body can't heat up a warm body. Heat naturally wants to flow from warmer to cooler areas. Energy wants to flow and spread out to areas with less energy. If it goes the other way, the system must work for it.
Ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3), a common fertilizer, is also a very explosive solid, forming O2, N2, and H2 gases when it decomposes. Describe the way in which the entropy of the reactants would change during the reaction. Would this tend to favor the reactio
How many calories in food do you need to stay alive each day?
appx 1800

if you weigh 150lbs and are sitting all day it is 12 calories per lb

Indicate whether each of the following is a unit of energy or of power: BTU, Kilowatt-hours, Kilocalorie/day, calories
Name a greenhouse gas.
carbon dioxide
nitrous oxide
If you used a 100 Watt electrical bulb for 24 hours, how much energy would you use?
100watts x 24 hours = 2400 watthours
In general, dust thrown into the air during a nuclear war would tend to (warm/cool) the planet
As a source of energy, oil is dangerous both for the environment and for the country. Why then, do we use oil?
because when we first started using it we didn't know how bad it was, now we just don't have the resources to use something else
If you hold your hand half a centimeter about the head of a bald person, you will feel a form of energy. What sort of energy is this? What is the probable wavelength of this energy?
static electricity
The United States House of Repersentatives has just voted to rewrite the Endangered Species Act. For decades, the legislation has prohibited destruction of the habitat of any endangered species, and this has prevented commercial development of some wilde
We buy electrical energy based on kilowatt-hours. What is the price of Kw-hr of electricity here?
While heat pumps sometimes don't work well in this latitude, some now being installed in rural areas take heat fromt he ground and put it into the heating system of the house. Where does the heat in the ground come from?
Name or explain the three primary sources of energy here on earth?
sun, wind, water
Name two fossil fuels.
coal, oil, natural gas
Name four types of energy.
fossil, renewable, nuclear

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