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Anatomy Lecture 1


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Medullary Hemopoiesis
Hemopoiesis which takes place in the bone marrow.
Extramedullary Hemopoiesis
Hemopoiesis which takes place in the liver and spleen
When does extramedullary hemopoiesis occur in adults?
When the bone marrow is fibrosed or destroyed.
Is extramedullary hemopoiesis as efficient as medullary hemopoiesis?
No, Medullary hemopoiesis is more efficient.
What are hemocytoblasts?
pluripotent stem cells
What does proerythroblasts develop into?
What does myeloblasts develop into?
What does monoblasts develop into?
What does megakaryotes develop into?
What does PBSC stands for?
Peripheral blood stem cells
How can we use PBSCs?
We can collect them and transplant them into the medullary cavities of a leukimia patient after killing his original stem cells using a combination of chemotherapy and radiation.
Why are umbilical cord blood stem cells better than PBSCs and Bonemarrow stem cells?
Because those pluripotent stem cells are less prone to rejection by the body of the patient.
What's Graft vc Host disease?
It's when the transplanted cells attack the host body.
What is the definition of unipotent stem cells?
Those are cells which can develop into one type of blood cells.
What is the lifespan of erythrocytes?
120 days
If unipotent cells are found in the circulating blood, then the disrase probably is?
Acute leukimia
What controls the production of blood cells?
Hematopoietic growth factors(cytokines && || hormones)
What percentage of the bone marrow produces leukocytes?
Why is there a discrepancy between the number of leukocytes stem cells and the number of leukocytes in the circulating blood?
Because Leukocytes have a short lifespan(warriors dying)
Where do dead red blood cells go?
to liver and spleen where they are ingested by phagocytic cells.
How much time do stem cells need to mature into their daughter cells?
about a week
What is serum?
Serum is blood plasma without fibrinogen and other clotting factors.
Describe bone marrow
It is a highly vascular(full of blood vessels and channels) cellular substance in the medullary cavity of some bones.
What are sinusoids?
A small blood capillary similar to a blood vessel but filled with fenestrated endothelium.
What are the protective functions of skin?
1- Protection of internal organs.
2- Protection against dehydration.
3- Protection against microorganisms.
What are the other functions of the skin?
Secretion of sweat and milk(mammary glands)
What is the superficial fascia?
The superficial fascia is a connective tissue full of fats.
What is the function of fascia?
It surrounds bones, muscles, and joints, providing support and protection and giving structure to the body.
What are the functions of superficial fascia?
- Contains fat.
- Binds skin to deep fascia.
- Heat insulator.
- Food Store.
- Gives rounded contour.
- Contains vessels & nerves going to the skin.
What is deep fascia?
Dense connective tissue which forms a dense and strong membrane
What does superficial fascia contain?
- Blood Vessels.
- Lymph Vessels.
- Nerves.
What is the rtymology of the word fascia?
Latin, Band, bands.
what are the functions of deep fascia?
- invests deep structures
- Gives attachment to muscles.
Name 2 places where deep fascia is located.
- Palmar aponeurosis.(to protect underlying nerves)
- Retinaculum.(to keep the wrist tendons in position)
Name 2 places where deep fasci is absent.
- Most of the face.(not to prevent that facial expressions)
- Anterior walls of the abdomen.
What are the types of bones as seen by the naked eye?
- Compact.(smooth, no pores)
- Cancellous.(Spongy)
What is the etymology of cancellous?
Latin, Cancelli(intersecting), Osseus(Bars & plates)
What fills the spaces in the cancellous bone?
Bone Marrow
What are the types of bones according to shape?
long, short, flat, irregular.
Give 2 examples of short bones
- Carpal bones of the wrist.
- Tarsal bones of the feet
what is the name of the bone which holds the teeth?
Maxilla(Latin mala = jaw)
What is the name of the knee bone?
What are sesamoids?
Bones which exist inside a tendon.
What is the name of bones which contain air?
Pneumatic bones

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