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F&N 2310


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purpose of cooking
1. maximize nutrition value
2. develop, enhance, alter flavor
3. improve or retain color and texture
4. improve digestibility
5. destroy organism and injurious substances
sensory criteria
sight, odor, taste, touch, hearing
eyes receive the first impression of foods
volatile molecules and olfactory
sensory characteristics and personal preferences as perceived by the five senses
evaluations of food quality that rely on numbers generated by lab instruments, which are used to quantify the physical and chemical differences in foods (volume, density, viscosity)
objective tests
evaluation of sweetness, toughness (like in crackers), etc.
objective tests
food components
water, carbs, lipids, proteins, vitamins, minerals, color pigments, flavors, phytochemicals
anything plants produce and are believed to prevent cancer
functions of water in food
heat transfer, universal solvent, chemical reaction, water activity
most influential factor in ppls selection of foods
combined sense of smell, taste, and texture
five taste stimuli
bitter, sour, sweet, salty, umami
describes a food's firmness or thickness
sensory phenomenon characterized by a dry, puckery feeling in the mouth
most sounds are affect by
water content/activity
these two factors are involved in the formation of public attitudes
psychological and social
evaluations of food quality based on sensory characteristics and personal preferences
subjective tests
tests sweetness, toughness in crackers, etc.
objective tests
the amount of moisture in food
water activity a(w)
a(w) of fresh foods
a(w) range microorganisms can live in
what can you do to lengthen shelf life
food safety (4 controls/factors)
federal/state regulations, inspectors, centers for disease control and prevention (CDC), and food manufactureres/distributors
an illness transmitted to humans by food
foodborne illness
food in which microorganisms can rapidly grow
potentially hazardous food (PHF)
factors of PHF
high water activity, high pH, high protein
ex. of PHF
chicken, milk, cheese, meat, fish, etc.
presence of harmful substances not originally present in food
types of contamination
chemical, physical, and biological
ex. of chemical contamination
pesticides, toxicmetals, cleaning agents, and seafood toxins
ex. of physical contamination
glass chips, metal shavings, and other foreign materials
ex. of biological contamination
microorganisms, such as bacteria, molds, yeasts, viruses, or fungi
pathogenic bacteria requires
moisture (water activity), favorable temp (40F-140F), optimal pH (6.6-7.5)
cause discoloration, odors, and off-flavors
produce mycotoxins
can be destroyed by heating to 140F +
tiny organisms that depend on nutrients from other living host
ex. is in undercooked pork, and game
parasite - trichinella spiralis
can be present on any kind of food and not affected by water activity, pH, or oxygen content of their environment
four steps for properly handling food are
clean, seperate (x contam.), chill, cook
proper frig temp
40F or below
proper freezer temp
below 0F
proper dry storage temp
65F and low in moisture
food is exposed to an electric beam or gamma rays
FDA approved irradiation in certain foods..give ex.
pork/poultry, fruits/veggies, herbs/spices, tea
benefits of food irradiation
reduction/elimination of pathogen/spoilage microorganisms, replacement of chemical treatment in foods, and extended shelf-life
hazard analysis and critical control point system
a systemized approach to preventing foodborne illness during the production and preparation of food
a point in the HACCP process that must be controlled to ensure the safety of the food
Critical Control Point (CCP)
7 goals when planning menus
economic, palatability, satiety, practicality, time, nutritive value
3 diff. ways to measure
number (count), volume, weight
sift, spoon into cup, level
spoon into cup, level
pack into cup, level
brown sugar or solid fat
1/3 c. then add water until 1 c.
1 tbsp.
3 tsp.
1 c.
8 fl. oz.
1 pint
2 c.
1 quart
2 pints
1 gallon
4 quarts
the direct transfer of heat from one substance to another that it is contacting
the transfer of heat by moving air or liquid (water/fat) currents through and/or around food
the transfer of heat energy in the form of waves of particles moving outward from their source
the transfer of heat energy to a neighboring material w/out contact
holding saucepan over burner
a method of cooking in which heat is transferred by water, any water-based liquid, or steam
moist-heat prep
method of cooking in which heat is transferred by air, radiation, fat, or metal
dry-heat prep
higher temps are reached in which heat prep. than the other
mediums of heat transfer
water, steam, air, fat, combination
temp of water reaches 150F, indicated by appearance of large, but relatively still, bubbles on the bottom and sides of pan
water heated to 160-180F, hotter than scalding but hasn't reached bubbling point, food either partially/totally immersed, used to prepare delicate foods - fish/eggs
water is never below 180F but hasn't reached boiling point, gently rising bubbles, essential for cooking tough meats
simmering ingredients in a small to moderate amount of liquid, pot covered and food simmered on the range/or in a moderate oven, taste better day after prepared
similar to stewing, liquid food is simmered in is usually the foods own juices, fat, soup stock, and/or wine
water must reach 212F at sea level, rapid bubles, reserved for toughter textured veggies and dried pastas/beans
partially boil, not fully cook food, used frequently in restaurant service when food must be prepared in advance and finished to order
dip food briefly in boiling water, sets color of green veggies, loosens skins of fruits/veggies/nuts for peeling, destroys enzymes that contribute to deterioration, often done before canned or frozen
direct contact w/steam generated from boiling water, helps vegges retain texture, color, taste, and nutrients, food cooks by steam of own juices which are trapped in the packet
heat food by holding steam in an enclosed container under pressure
pressure cooking
heating of food by hot air in an oven, avg. 350F, rack position and pan color affect results
similar to baking except that the term is usually applied to meats/poultry, they are usually baseted every 20 minutes or so to prevent the food from drying out, and some are usually seared at 400F+ for about 15 minutes
cooking foods under an intense heat source, cooks food in usually about 5-10 minutes, only tender meats, poultry, and fish
reverse of broiling, in that food is cooked above rather than below an intense heat source
refers to foods being slow-cookied, usually covered in a zesty sauce over a longer period of time
types of fat cooking
sauteing, stir-frying, pan-broiling, pan-frying, and deep-frying
type of combination cooking
to move the food under the blade while keeping the point of the blade firmly on the cutting board
to cut food lengthwise into very thin, stick-like shapes
to cut leaf veggies into thin strips
to cut food into very fine pieces
to remove skin
the ingredients are moved vigorously in a back-in-forth, up-and-down, and around-and-around motion until they are smooth
ingredients are mixed so thoroughly that they become one
occurs when ingredients adhere to each other, as when breading is bound to fish
to beat fat and sugar together until they take on a light, airy texture
very vigorous mixing, usually w/a beater of some type, that incorporates air into such foods as whipping cream and egg whites
one ingredient is gently incorporated into another by hand with a large spoon or spatula
any compound that enhances the flavor already found naturally in a food
substance that adds a new flavor to food
ex. of herbs
parsley, basil, cilantro
herbs are taken from
leaves of plants
ex. of spices
cinnamon, nutmeg, pepper, vanilla
spices are taken from
all parts of plants excluding leaves
#1 spice
garlic, onions, and shallots can also serve as
types of seasoning/flavorings
herbs, spices, salt, flavor enhancers, oil extracts, marinades, breading and batters
ex. of oil extracts
vanilla, olive
ex. of flavor enhancers
keep fresh herbs refrigerated at
dried herbs stored in
airtight containers
seeds of cultivated grasses
cereal grains
bran is high in
fiber and minerals
germ is high in
fat, some proteins, minerals, vitamins
endosperm is high in
starch (think flour)
grains contain
carbs, vitamins, minerals, fat, and proteins
well balance diet derives how much % of calories from carbs
added back the vitamins and minerals that might be lost during the processing
enriched food
added nutrients that were not present in the original food
fortified foods
ex. of enriched foods
bread, cereals, rice, fat free milk
ex. of fortified food
juice, salt, milk + vit. D
4 preps of cereal grains
boiling, simmering, microwaving, and baking (all w/water b/c grains are dry)
proportion of water to rice
1 c. rice to 2 c. water = 3 c.
cook rice w/hot water =
fluffier grains
cook rice w/cold water =
stickier rice
pH level of cooking rice
higher than 7 rice will gelatinize faster
grains are coated, not cooked, w/hot fat and hot liquid is added
grains are sauted in fat and hot liquid is added
4 preps of rice
risotto, pilaf, boiling/simmering, and microwaving
pasta originally from
made from unleavened dough of wheat flour mixed w/water
types of pasta
noodles, asian noodles, whole wheat, veggie purees, fanciful, high-protein, fresh, couscous
methods of cooking pasta
moist-heat: boiling/simmering and/or microwaving
1 pound of pasta needs how much water to cook
4 quarts
storage form of carbs, which is produced by plants
two types of starch
amylose and amylopectin
uses of starch
thickeners, stabilizers, texturizers, water/fatbinders, fat substitutes, and emulsification aids
the increase in volume, viscosity, and translucency of starch granules when they are heated in a liquid
factors influencing gelatinization
temp, time, stirring, amount of water, sugar, fat, and acid
vigorous stirring influences gelatinization how
makes slippery paste
sugar influences gel. how
delays gel. process and results in a thick and runny paste
fat influences gel. how
delays process by covering starch and keeping water from getting in
acid influences gel. how
low pH decreases the viscosity of a starch gel; breaks down gel. and water leaks out
the seepage of water out of an aging gel due to the contraction of the gel (bonds tighten between the amylose molecules)
retrogradation (also know as syneresis or weeping)
the breakdown of starch molecules to smaller, sweeter-tasting dextrin molecules in the presence of dry heat
2 starch characteristics
dextrinization and retrogradation
how to prevent lump formation - 3 ways
create a slurry of flour in cold water, surround and separate the flour w/fat, and seperate the starch w/sugar
2 methods of cooking starch
1. stir flour in fat until a stiff paste is formed and add liquid. cook until it is thick and smooth
2. mix cold liquid and starch together and heat. add fat just after the sauce thickens
plants or parts of plants used for food
ex. of veggies from bulbs
radish, chives, onion, garlic = peeled layers
ex. of veggies from stems
asparagus, celery
ex. of veggies from leaves
cabbage, spinach, lettuce
ex. of veggies from seeds
legumes, peas, corn, lentils
ex. of veggies from tuber
ex. of veggies from flower
broccoli, cauliflour
veggies are high in
vitamins, minerals, and fibers
nonnutritive compounds in plants that posses health-protective benefits
3 major groups of plant pigments
carotenoids, chlorophylls, flavonoids
yellow-orange most stable pigment
ex. of carotenoids
carrots, pumpkins
green pigment
ex. of chlorophylls
spinach, green beans, broccoli
white-creamy yellow and red-purple pigments
ex. of flavonoids
cauliflour, squash, red cabbage, radish
pigments that are fat soluble
carotenoids and chlorophylls
pigments that are water soluble
only fresh veggies subject to USDA grading are
potatoes, carrots, and onions
5 principles of cooking veggies
texture, flavor, odor, color, and nutrient retention
adding acid, sugar, or calcium when cooking veggies does what
makes veg. firmer which takes longer to cook
to keep flavor cook veggies how
in little wwater and short period of time
methods of cooking fresh veggies
baking, roasting, sauteing, and deep frying = dry-heat; simmering, steaming, microwaving = moist-heat
when cooking canned veggies what do you do
cook them w/liquid in can (however be careful of preservatives in that liquid)
cook dried veggies how
soak in water overnight to make softer then cook faster later on
sliced and place veggies in layer, sprinkle w/flour, salt, pepper, and fat (no baking)
au gratin
slice and place veggies in layer, top w/cheese sauce, bake until golden brown
diced, chopped, or pureed veggies, added egg and milk
custard or timbale
cooked in syrup until done
combination of veggies pulp, added white sauce, eggs, and seasoning
veggie puree or juice plus thin white sauce
cream soup
combination of veggie, cheese, chopped meat, starch and seasoning
first bioengineered (genetically modified) tomato on the market
flavr savr
fruits are high in
vitamins A and C, minerals, carbs, and water
fruits are low in
calories, fat, and protein
ripe fruits contain high % of
not all fruits are high in
carotenoids are what color
anthocyanins are what color
is the mandatory grading of fruits
voluntary grading may be done based on
size, shape, appearance, color, texture, ripeness, uniformity, freedom from defects
prices for veg. and fruits depend on
season and quality
3 ways fruits are bought
fresh, processed, juice form
processed fruits are
canned, frozen, or dried
oldest technique of processed fruits is
smell from fruits esp. when cut or peeled
ethylene gas
ripening hormone that is used to ripen fruit faster to sell
ethylene gas
compounds responsible for browning and bruising
denaturing enzymes happens when
its put in water
lowering storage temp does what to enzyme process
slows it
antioxidants can be coated onto fruits to help what
block exposure to oxygen (like sugar)
4 preps of fruit
clean, peel, cut, cook
4 princ. of cooking fruit
texture, color, flavor, nutritive values
longer cook veg./fruits the less the what
flavor, nutrutive value, color
added alkaline to fruits
makes mush
added acid, sugar, calcium to fruits
makes firmer
metods of cooking fruits
dry-heat = baking, broiling, and frying/sauteing; moist-heat = stewing/poaching
prepare dried fruit how
soak in water and then simmer in covered pan
to retain fruit shape when cooking
cook in sugar syrup
to make fruit softer
cook in water
can unripe fruit be left at room temp in paper bag until ripe
fruit is best when consumed how many days after purchase
how do you keep in frig
in plastic bags w/holes
edible flowers are usually used for

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