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An Introduction to Metabolism


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What is a metabolic pathway?
where chemical reactions occur in a cell
What happens along a metabolic pathway?
a specific molecule is altered in a series of defined steps, resulting in a certain product
What is a catabolic pathways?
a metabolic pathway where complex molecules are broken down to simpler compounds
What is a major pathway of catabolism?
cellular respiration
What happens in cellular respiration?
sugar glucose, other organic fuels, and oxygen are broken down to carbon dioxide and water
What are anabolic pathways?
pathways that consume energy to build complicated molecules from simpler ones, aka biosynthetic pathways.
What is an example of an anabolism?
The synthesisof a protein fromm amino acids
How are anabolic and catabolic pathways connected?
Energy released from catabolism can be used in anabolic pathways
What is bioenergetics?
the study of how organisms manage their energy resourcces
What is energy?
the capacity to cause change
What is work?
to move matter against opposing forces
What are examples of work?
gravity and friction
What is chemical energy?
the potential energy available for release in a chemical reaction
What form can energy be lost in?
What is thermodynamics?
study of energy transfer
What is the first law of thermodynamics?
energy can neither be created or destroyed
What is the 2nd law of thermodynamics?
energy transformation increases entropy in the universe
What is entropy?
a measure of disorder
What does a process need to occur without an input of energy?
it needs to increase the entropy of the universe
What is a spontaneous process?
occurs without the input of energy
What does the letter G stand for in biology?
Gibbs free enrgy system
What is free energy?
the portion of a system's energy that can perform work when temperature and pressure and uniform throughout the system
How cant the change in free enrgy be calculated?
the change in enthalpy (total energy) minus the change in absolute temperature (Kelvin) multiplied by the change in enthropy
Will the change in temperature be negative or positive if the process is spontaneous?
What must a process give up to be spontaneous?
enthalpy, order or both
How do you find the change in temperature?
minus the original amount of free energy from the final state of energy
Which has higher energy, a stable or unstable system?
a unstable system
What has lower energy, a unstable or stable system?
a stable system.
What is a name of maximum stability?
What happens as a reaction reaches equilibrium?
the free energy of the reactants and products decreases
What is the change in free energy for exergonic reactions?
What does the magnitude of the change in free energy represent?
the maximum amount of work the reaction can perform
What is an exergonic reaction?
a reaction that releases free energy, negative change in free energy
What is an endergonic reaction?
a reaction that needs free energy to occur, nonspontaneous
What would occur if a cell is at metabollic equilibrium
it would die
What are the 3 main kinds of work a cell can do?
Mechanical, transport, and chemical
What are examples of mechanical work of a cell?
the beating of cilia, contraction of muscle cells, or the movement of chromosomes
What are examples of transport work of a cell?
pumping of substances across membranes against spontaneous movement
What are examles of chemical work?
pushing of energonic reactions
What is energy coupling?
the use of exergonic reactions to process an endergonic reaction
What energy is responsibile for mediating most energy coupling in cells?
What is ATP?
Adenosine triphosphate, contains the sugar ribose, nitrogenous base adenine and a chain of 3 phosphate groups
What can break the bond between the phosphate groups of ATP?

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