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Texas Government - Policy and Politics - Ch.13


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Ability-to-pay Theory of Taxation
The approach to government finance that holds that taxes should be based on an individual's financial resources.
Children's Health Insurance Program
A federal program designed to provide health insurance to children from low-income families who's parents are not poor enough to qualify for Medicaid.
Corporation Franchise Tax
A state tax levy assessed on corporations.
Employees Retirement System (ERS) Trust Fund
A pension fund for state employees.
Excise Tax
A tax levied on the manufature, transportation, sale, or consumption of a particular item or set of related items.
Federal Grant-in-aid Program
Programs through which the national government gives money to state and local governments for expendature in accordance with set standards and conditions.
Fiscal Year
Budget year.
General Fund
A state treasury account that supports state programs and services without restriction.
Incremental Model of Budgeting
A theoretical effort to explain the budget process on the basis of small (incremental) changes in budget categories from one budget period to the next.
Individualistic Political Culture
An approach to government and politics that emphasizes private initiative with a minimum of government interference.
Matching Funds Requirement
A legislative provision that the national government will provide grant money for a particular activity only on condition that the state or local government involved supply a certian percentage of the total money required for the project or program.
Pari-mutuel Wagering
A system for gambling on horse and dog racing.
The conditional release of convicted offenders from prison to serve the remainder of their sentences in the community under supervision.
Per Capita
Per Person.
Performance-based Budgeting
A system of budget preparation and evalutation in which policymakers identify specific policy goals, set performance targets for agencies, and measure results.
Political Culture
The widely held, deeply rooted political values of a society.
Progressive Tax
A levy whose burden weighs more heavily on on persons earning higher incomes than it does on individuals making less money.
Proportional Tax
A levy that weighs equally on all persons, regardless of their income.
An economic slowdown charaterized by declining economic output and rising unemployment.
Regressive Tax
A levy whose burden weighs more heavily on low income groups than wealthy taxpayers.
Sales Tax
A levy on the retail sale of taxable items.
Severance Tax
A tax levied on natural resources at the time they are taken from the land or water.
Sin Tax
A levy on an activity that some people consider morally objectional, such as drinking or smoking.
Tax Elasticity
The extent to which tax revenues rise as personal income rises.
Tax Incidence
The point at which the actual cost of tax falls.
Temporary Assistance for Needy Families
A federal program that provides temporary financial assistance and work opportunities to needy families.
Texas Teacher Retirement System (TRS) Trust Fund
A pension fund for the state's public school teachers.

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