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1st Neuro Exam :(


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Vertebral Column
protection of the spinal cord cervical-7-neck, thoracic 12-trunk, lumbar-5-lower back, Sacral-5, Coccygeal-4
Skull make up
Facial Bones, Calvarium
Calvarium make up
Frontal Bones, Parietal Bones, Temporal Bones, Occipital Bone, Sphenoid Bone, Ethmoid Bone
Frontal Bone
1 forehead
Parietal Bones
2 Lateral to frontal bone
Temporal Bones
2-inf. to praietal bones-contains external auditory meatus within petrous portion hardest portion-hardest portion squamous
Occipital Bone
back and under surface-contains foramen magnum-bump on back is external occipital protuberance opp. internal occipital protuberance
Sphenoid Bone
part of the int. and ant. portion of the calvarium-houses the endocrine gland-forms back of the orbits part of the calvarium floort
Ethmoid Bone
part of nasal and floor sup. point of attachment is Cristi Galli
Sutures in the Calvarium
strong innerdigital growth-together like a puzzle
coronal suture, longitudinal/sagittal sutre, squamousal suture, lambdoid suture
Coronal suture
frontal and parietal grow together
Longitudinal/Sagittal suture
where parietla bones grow together
squamousal suture
temporal and parietal connection
lambdoid suture
occipital and parietal connection
orbitomeatal line
imaginary line from inferior portion of the obit to the sup prtion of the external auditory meatus-horizontal head is anatomically correct position
a fibrous tissue b/t sutures which allows for growth and allows the head to fit in birth canal.
anterior soft spot
posterior soft spot
three sections on the floor of the calvarium-anterior, middle and posterior
anterior fossae
where the frontal lobe sits-divide from temporal by the greater wing of the sphenoid.
Middle fossae
where the temporal lobes sit-divide from frontal by the greater wing of the sphenoid.
posterior fossae
where the occipital lobe sits-divided from middle fossae by the petrous portion of temporal bone.
Meningeal membrane
dura mater
bt the brain and clavrium thick layer of meningeal membrane-contains two layers-periostial and meningeal
periostial layer
outermost layer of dura mater attaches to cristi galli and ext. occipital protub.-potential space bt calvarium and calvarium-epidural space
meningeal layer
inner layer dura mater-soft tissue holds brain lobe in place dips into hemis. three section falx cerebri, tentorium, falx cerebelli
Falx cerebri
part of meningeal layer thin fold that separates lt and rt hemis-attaches to cristi galli ant. and post. to ext. occip. protub.
part of meningeal layer bt cerebrum and cerebellum spearates mid. and post. cranial fossa, perpendicual to falx cerebri
falx cerebelli
part of meningeal layer separates cerbellar hemis.
Epidural space
potential space bt dura mater and bone
superior sagittal sinues
deviation bt periostial and meningeal layers of dura mater where csf and deoxy blood collect
subdural space
bt meingeal layer and arachnoid membrane-potential space
Arachnoid membrane
soft thin membrane covers brain under meningeal layer of dura mater. arachnoid villus, arachnoid granulations, arachnoid trabeculae, subarachnoid space, cistern
arachnoid villus
pieces of granulation-extension of arachnoid mem. push through dura to channel fluid oneway into sup. sag. sinus
arachnoid granulations
lumbs and bumps-congregation of villus
arachnoid trabeculae
course through subarachnoid space to connect pia and arachnoid.
subarachnoid space
large area bt arachnoid mem. and pia mater-fills w/ csf
enlarged portion of subarachnoid space-larger place where csf collects
Pia mater
deepest most fragile layer of meninges-follows all convulutions-made of glial cells, nourish neurons, store chem and remove dead neurons
Cerebral Spinal Fluid
clear, constantly produced, replenished 3-4x's/day
Function CSF
protective cushion, support, inflates, eliminates wastes
Production of CSF
Choroid plexus-in the ventricles-chemically alters blood-red ribbon appearance because of capillaries-made of capillaries and internal pia mater
Circulation of CSF
Lateral vent->foramen of monroe->3rd vent.->cerbral aqueduct->4th vent.->pontine cisterns and cisterna magna->post. sub arach of spinal cord->ant. sub arach. of spinal cord->cranial sub arach. space->sup. sag. sinus->resbsorp. to blood stream
Left Aortic Arch and Right Aortic Arch
Left Aortic Arch
Common Carotid and Subclavian
Common Carotid
diretly off left aortic arch for external carotid and internal carotid
external carotid lt
blood to the face
internal carotid rt
blood to the brain enter through carotid foramen
Subclavian lt
directly of lt aortic arch has a branch called vertebral artery
vertebral artery lt
enter through foramen magnum via the neck
Right side aortic arch
gies rise to brachioencephali trunk which branch to form common carotid which branches to form ext. and internal carotid
Posterior inferior cerebral artery
branchinig of the vertebral arter b4 vetebral arteris join to become: basilar artery
Basilar artery
joining of left and right vertebral art. spilts to form ant.inf. cerebellar art. and sup. cerebellar art.
ant. inf. cerebellar art.
branch of basilar art. to supply blood to cerebellum
sup. cerebellar art.
branch off basilar art. to supply blood to cerebellum
circle of willis
undersurface of the brain around the cradle of the sphenoid-made of nine arteries
posterior cerebral arteries
2-branch off sup. portion of basilar artery-provides blood to occipital and parietal
posterior communicating arteries
2-extend from posterior cerebral artery course into middle crebral and ant. comm. artery.
middle cerebral arteries
brach off post. comm. and ant. comm. to supply bllod to bobth sides of the cerebrum ext. of int. carotid
ant. cerebral arteries
2-blood from medial and frontal portions of middle cerebral arteries.
Reason for circle of willis
protects bllod flow by givng the blood an alt. way to flow
carry bllod back to the heart and used CSF capillaries collect bllod from the coritcal surface-trans. bllod to venules->deposit blood into sinuses drain post. and inf into int. jugular to heart.
Frontal Lobe
Central Sulcus, Lateral Fissure, precentral gyrus, premotor cortex, sup. frontal gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus.
Central Sulcus
Rolandic Fissure-line differentiates frontal from parietal
Lateral fissure
sylvian fissure-temporal from frontal
Precentral gyrus
primary motor cortex-anterior to the central sulcus-controls move. in an organized feet top of brain to head towards the bottom.
premotor cortex
anterior to pre central gyrus-controls motor planning-give msgs to motor cortex-same order as precentral
superior frontal gyrus
f(1)-superior to the supe. frontal sulcus
middle frontal gyrus
f(2)-inferiro to the sup. frontal sulcus, sup. to the inf. frontal sulcus
inferior frontal gyrus
f(3)-inf. to the inf. frontal sulcus-three divisions-pars obitalis, pars triangularis, pars opercularis
pars orbitalis
most inf. portion of the inf. frontal gyrus-involved in motor planning-make up frontal operculum only in the lt.
pars triangularis
contains broca's area motor planning are for jaw, lips, tongue, and vf-make up frontal operculum only in the lt.
pars opercularis
contains broca's area motor planning are for jaw, lips, tongue, and vf-make up frontal operculum only in the lt.
Parietal lobe
contains-postcentral gyrus, postcentral sulcus, intraparietal sulcus, parieto-occipital sulcus, cingualate gyrus.
postcentral gyrus
primary somatosensory cortex-receives tactile info-same organization as other areas
postcentral sulcus
posterior to postcentral gyrus
intraparietal sulcus
perpendicular to the postcentral sulcus: separates into sup. parietal lobule, inf. pareital lobe.
superior parietal lobule
is separated from the inferior parietal lobule by the intraparietal sulcus
inferior parietal lobule
inf. to the intraparietal sulcus-contains area which assoc. auditory and visual info. which contain supramarginal gyrus and angular gyrus
Supramarginal gyrus
ant. portion of inf. parietal lobule.
angular gyrus
post. portion of the inf. parietal lobule-integrate auditory and visual into speech code
Parieto-occipital sulcus
only seen sagittally separates occipital lobe from parietal lobe and temporal lobe
cingulate gyrus
sup to the corpus callosum
Occipital Lobe
Calcarine sulcus, cuneus, lingual gyrus, primary visual cortex, association visual cortices
calcarine sulcus
separates the occipital lobe sagittally-divides the primary visual cortex into upper and lower operculum. contains cuneus and lingual gyrus
superior to calcarine sulcus sup. portion of the association visual cortex
lingual gyrus
inf. to calcarine sulcus-inf. protion of the association visual corices
primary visual cortex
receives visual info
Temporal lobe
superior temporal gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, inferior temporal gyrus, superior surface of LT1
Superior suface of LT1
transverse temporal gyri, planum temporale
Transverse temporal gyrus
across the sup. temporal gyrus-primary receptive cortex for audition-heschl's gyrus-primary auditory cortex
Planum temporale
wernicke's area in lt hemis-post.-association for audition-post. 2/3 of LT1
fifth lobe-only exposed when temporal lobe is removed-assoc. cortex-related to lymbic-integration info from all senses
Middle Temporal Gyrus
t(2)-superior to the inf. temporal sulcus. inf. to the sup. temporal sulcus.
Inf.temporal gyrus
t(3)-inf. to the inf. temporal sulcus.
Inferior Surface of the brain
no parietal structures seen-occipital-temporal sulcus, colalteral sulcus, occipital temporal gyrus, medial occipital gyrus, primary olfactory cortex, obitaal gyri, olfactory trarct bulb and nerve.
Occipital-temporal sulcus
divdes the medial occipital gyrus and the occipital temporal gyrus. undersuface of brain
Collateral sulcus
marks the later limtes of the parahippocampal and lingual gyri-undersurface of the brain
occipital temporal gyrus
later to the occipital temporal sulcus-undersurface of the brain
medial occipital gyrus
Medial to the occipital temporal sulcus-undersurface of the brain
Primary olfactory cortex
undersuface of the brain: parahippocampal gyrus and uncus
Parahippocampal gyrus
medial surface of temperal lobe grey matter play important role in formation and retrieval of memory
most anter part of the parahippocampus-olfactory association
Obital gyri
frontal lobe-ant. protion: optic nerve and chiasm-undersurface of the brain
olfactory tract bulb and nerve
medial frontal lobe serves as sense of smell.
bt brain: thalamus, hypothalamus, subthalamus,epithalamus
Thalamus characteristics
largest, most superior part of the diencephalon-hidden by cerebrum
Thalamus job
grand relay station for both hemispheres-all info passes thourgh-integration and distrubution-collection of nuclei
Hypothalamus location
most inf. portion of diencephalon 2nd largest portion
Hypothalamus job
role in motor control, regulation, head of autonamic nervous system, part of limbic, reg. of emotion, most primative part
not a surface structure, only control motor, part of basal ganglia
seen on the dorsal medial edge of thalamus-sleep/wake circadium rhythm.
Ventral Side of diencephalon
tuber cinereum (infundibulum), mammilary bodies
tuber cinereum
infundibulum-ventral diencephalon-attaches to the pituitary gland
Mammilary bodies
ventral diencephalon-part of the limbic-primary to auditory stimuli one of the nuclei in hypo.
Midsaggital diencephalon
interthalamic adhesion (mass intermeida, hypothalamic sulcus
interthalamic adhesion
Midsaggital diencephalon-mass intermedia-area where two hemispheres of thalamus grow together
hypothalamic suclus
Midsaggital diencephalon-groove separates thalamus and hypothalamus m
Coronal diencephalon
subthalmus, lateral ventricles, third ventricle
third ventricle
coronal diencephalon-separates two thalami except where they are attached at the interthalamic adhesion
lateral ventricle
coronal diencephalon-space bt thalamus and corpus callosum
Posterior diencephalon
Thalamus, epithalamus
coronal diencephalon-nucleus the inf. and lateral to hypothalamus
extends posterior-medial geniculate body, and lateral geniculate body
Medial geniculate body
nucleus for hear on post. surface of thalamus
Lateral geniculate body
nucleaus for vision on the post. surface of thalamus
Stria medullaris, habenlua, pineal body
stria medullaris
post. epithalmus-fibrous tracts course towars the axons of the habenula and pineal body
post. epithalamus-nucleus made of cell bodies and dendrites
pineal body/gland
post. epithalamus-inf. boder of the 3rd ventricle
External brainstem
mesencephalon, pons, medulla oblongata
Ventral Midbrain
Olfactory Nerve, optic nerve, cerebellar peduncles, interpeduncular fossa,occulormotor nerve vertical striations of midbrain
Olfactory Nerve
cerebellar peduncles
swelling on either side of the mammilary bodies mad up of axonal fibers
interpeduncular fossa
bt two cerebellar peduncles
vertical striations of midbrain
stiped quality of cerebral peduncles-axons from the motorstrip-pass through pons-reemerge through ant. medulla.
Pons ventral
only visable ventrally-bordered by sup. pontine sulcus, inf. pontine sulcus, brachium pontis, pyramidal tracts, trigeminal
Superior pontine sulcus
ventral-separates pons from midbrain.
Inferior pontine sulcus
ventrally-separate pons from the medulla oblongata
Brachium pontis
anterior-large mass of transverse fibers to carry info to cerebellum-wraps around to for middle cerebellar peduncles
pyramidal tracts
fiber emer on ant. portion of medulla
exits pon on the lateral surface
Medulla ventral
pyramid, ventral median sulcus, decussation of pyramids, ventral lateral sulcus, olive, inf. olivary nucleus, abducen, cerebellopontine angle, facial nerve, vestibulocochlear, glossalpharyngeal, vagus, spinal acces, hypoglossal
come from pons emerege on ventral surface of medulla
ventral median sulcus
separates pyamids
ventral lateral sulcus
lateral to pyramids
bulge produced by underlying nuclei on either side of medulla
attaches to sup. portion of each pyrmid, inferior to sup pontine sulcus
cerebellopontine angle
junct where medulla pons and cerebellum meet
facial nerve
emerges from cerebllopontine angle
emerges from cerebellopontine angle
emergest lateral to the olive
emerges lateral to olive and inf. to glossopharyngeal
spinal acces.
lateral to olive
bt pyramid and olive
Midbrain dorsal
Corpra quadrigemina-superior colliculi and inferior colliculi, nucleus cuneatus, internal arcuate fibers
Corpra quadrigemina
midbrain dorsal made of superior colliculi-vision and inferior colliculi-audition
Dorsal Pons
covered by cerebellar penduncles, sup.peduncle, middle peduncles,inf.peduncles, trochlear, floor of 4th vent, median sulcus, medial emminence, sulcus limitans facial colliculi, hypoglossal trigone, vagal trigone
Sup. peduncle
outgoing pathways info leaving cerbellum toward cerebrum dorsal
middle peduncle
info from the pons to cerebellum-dorsal
inf. peduncle
connect cerebellum to medulla msg. ascending from spinal cord->cerebellum sense info-dorsal
dorsal and lateral exit from cerebellopotine angle
floor of 4th vent.
dorsal-bt brainstem and cerebellum
median sulcus
separate 4th vent. dorsal
medial emminence
lateral to median sulcus dorsal
sulcus limitans
lateral to emminence dorsal
facial colliculi
swelling for underying nuclei of abducen and facial-dorsal
hypoglossal trigone
inf. to facial colliculi-swelling for hypoglossal-dorsal
vagal trigone
nuceli of vagus dorsal
Medulla dorsal
doral median sulcus, dorsal intermediate sulcus, ventral dorsal sulcus, fsciculas gracilis, fasciculus cuneatus, gracile tubercle, nucleus gracili, nucleus cuneatus, internal arcuate fibers
doral median sulcus
divides medulla
dorsal intermediate sulcus
lateral to dorsal median
ventral dorsal sulcus
lateral dorsal intermediate
fasciculus gracilis
axonal fibers on either side of midline-carries sense info from lower body extremities-dorsal medulla
fasciculus cuneatus
carries sense info from upper portion of the body-dorsal medulla
gracile tubercle
caused by underlying nucleus fo fasciculus gracilus dorsal medulla-dorsal medulla
nucleus gracilis
synapes of gracilis and cellbodies-dorsal medulla
cuneate tubercle
caused by underlying nucleus of cuneatus-dorsal medulla
nucleus cuneatus
synapse of the cuneatus and cell bodies-dorsal medulla
internal arcuate fibers
decussation of fibers that ascend to form medial lemniscous heading toward thalamus
Cerebellum location
little brain posterior to brain stem sep. from brainstem by 4th ventricle
Cerebellum function
quality control move. makes move. precise, optimize movement by sensing it to cerebrum for modification
Cerebellum parts
Cerebellar peduncles, cortex, vermis, primary fissure, posterolateral fissure, floccunlonodular lobe, lateral zone, intermediate zone, spinocerebrum
superior peduncles attachement
attaches cerebellum to midbrain
middle peduncle attachment
attaches cerebellum to pons
inferior penduncle
attaches cerebellum to medulla
sheets of grey matter that cover the cerebellum
central portion of the cerebellum that connects the two hemis.
primary fissure
in cerebellum separates anterior lobe and posterior lobe
posterolateral fissure
separates the posterior lobe and flocculonodular lobe in cerebellum
flocculonodular lobe
receives info from the vestibular system about head position in cerebellum
lateral zone
send info out about planning and time of motor move. through sup. penducles-cerebellum
vermis and intermediat zone from spinal cord to cerebellum through inf. peduncles and send to sup. peduncles-to cerebrum for fine motor move
Spinal Cord Gross Anatomy
Sulci, Conus Medularis, Cauda equina
sulci of the medulla that continue to form: ventral median sulcus, ventral lateral sulcus, dorsal median sulcus, dorsal intermediate sulcus, dorsal lateral sulcus
conus medularis
termination point of the spinal cord
cauda equina
collection of nerves past conus medularis that branch off to ennervate different parts of the body
Internal Organization Spinal Cord
White matter, gray matter, central canal
White matter spinal cord
anterior funiculus, lateral funiculus, dorsal funiculus
Anterior funiculus
white matter in spinal cord carries descending motor info
lateral funiculus
white matter in spinal cord carries sense and motor info
dorsal funiculus
white matter in spinal cord carries ascending info
Gray matter of spinal cord
anterior and posterior horns
Anterior horns of spinal cord
motor fibers course through descending
Posterir horns of spinal cord
sense fibers course through ascending
central canal
continuation of the 4th vent.-potential space
Spinal Nerves (PNS)
31 pairs Mixed Nerves, ventral root, dorsal root
mixed nerves
contain sense and motor fibers
ventral root
exit ant. horns of spinal cord contain motor fibers
dorsal root
exit posterior horns of spinal cord contain sense fibers
Simple arc reflex
stim->receptor->sense neuron->post. horn->assoc. neuron->motor neuron->ant. horn->effector
sends sense info from spinal cord to thalamus
sends sense info to ascending spinal to cerebellum
lateral corticospinal
sends motor info from cortex to spinal cord-contralateral fibers that crossed in medulla
non-crossed fibers from medulla to spinal cord-motor
cortex of cerebrum
sheets of gray matter 1 cm thick-non-homogenous-made up of many different neurons-by appearance and firing patterns
Cortex organization
Laminar, columnar
laminar organization of cerebrum
neocortex, allocortex
laminar organization-90% of cerebrum 6 layers 6 deepest-runs parallel to brain-each layer has diff. function
limbic system-3 layers of neurons-older found in all animals-scattered all over brain-ascending from thalamus
columnar oragnization
perpendicular to laminar-homogenous 4,000 neurons for each column-develp based on exposure-very specific function
Deep Nuclei of Cerebrum
Corpus Striatum, Amygdala, Claustrum
corpus striatum
Caudate Nucleus and Lenticular nucleus-Deep nuclei
Caudate nucleus
Makes up wall of lateral vent. loops up and over the other nucleus-part of corpus striatum
Lenticular nucleus
Putamen and Globus Pallidus-part of corpus striatum
Lateral to the globus pallidus-part of lenticular nucleus
Globus Pallidus
Medial to putamen-part of lenticular nucleus
part of deep nuclei-termination of the caudate in temporal lobe part of limbic system
lateral to the putamen-deep nuclei of cerebrum
Basal Ganglia
caudate nuclei, putamen, globus pallidus, substantia nigra, subthalamic nuclei-store motor memory
White Matter
mylenation of brain-during first year-11-12 years-helps with efficiency of neural impulses
White Matter make up
Association Fibers, Commisural fibers, projection fibers, corona radiata, internal capsule, external capsule, extreme capsule
Association Fibers
short association fibers and long association fibers-transmit info within same hemisphere
short association fibers
connect adjacent gyri
long association fibers
connect one cortex with another-ie-broca's to wernicke's by arculate faciculus.
Commissural fibers
connect two hemispheres-bridge of white matter-corpus callosum and ant. and post. commisures
copus callosum
largest commissural fiber-c shaped-Genu, splenium, body
genu of corpus callosum
knee-anterior portion
Posterior portion of corpus callosum
bt splenium and genu of corpus callosum
Projection fibers
connect cortex of cerebrum with inf. structures. corticopedal and corticofugal
projection fibers-ascending sense fibers from lower structures to cortex of cerebrum
Anterior and posterior commsisures
connect specific areas in brain w/ others

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