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Developmental Psychology Chapter 4


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THe first two weeks of development after conception; characterized by rapid cell dividion and the beginning of cell differentiation. This is the most hazardous period of development
germinal period
Approximately the third through the 8th week after conception; the period during which the basic forms of all body structures, including internal organs, develop
embryonic period
The stage of prenatal development from the ninth week after conceptionuntil birth; the period during which the organs of the developing person grow in size and mature in functioining. Brain maturation and weight gain occur throughout this period
fetal period
Beginning about a week after conception, the burrowing of the zygote into the lining of the uterus, where it can be nourished and protected during growth.
The name for the developing organism from about the third through the eigth week after conception
The name for the developing organism from the ninth week conception until birth.
THe age (about 22 weeks after conception) at which a fetus can survive outside the mother's uterus if specialized medical care is available
age of viability
Agents and conditions, including viruses, drugs and chemicals that can impair prenatal development and result in birth defects or even death
Agents and conditions that can harm the prenatal brain, affecting the future child's intellectual and emotional functioning
behavioral teratogens
THe science of weighing the potential effects of a particular event, substance, or experience to determine the likelihood of harm.
risk analysis
In prenatal development, the time when a particular organ or other body part of the fetus is most susceptible to damage by teratogens
critical period
A situation in which a certain teratogen is relatively harmless in small doses but becomes harmful once exposure reaches a certain level
threshold effect
THe result of a combination of teratogens. Sometimes risk is greatly magnified when the embryo is exposed to more than one teratogen at the same time.
interaction effect
A cluster of birth defects, including abnormal facial characteristics, slow physical growth, and retarded mental development, caused by the mother's drinking alcohol when pregnant
fetal alcohol syndrome
THE virus that causes AIDS, in which the body's immune system is gradually overwhelmed and the individual becomes vulnerable to opportunistic infections
Human immunodeficiency virus
A body weight at birth of less than 5.5 lbs. The cause could be slow growth during prenatal development or birth before 36 weeks of gestation, or both
low birth weight
A body weight at birth of less than 3 pounds
very low birth weight
A body weight at birth of less than 2 pounds
extremely low birthweight
Bith that occurs 3 weeks or more before the full term of pregnancy has elapsed- that is, at 35 or fewer weeks after conception
preterm birth
A term for a baby whose birthweight is significantly lower than expected, given the time since conception.
small for gestational age
A quick assesment of a new born's body functioning. THe baby's color, heart rate, reflexes, muscle tone and respiratory effort are scored (0-2) twice, at one minute and 5 minutes after birth, and the total scores are compared with the ideal score
Apgar scale
A surgical birth. Incisions through the mother's abdomen and uterus allow the fetus to be removed quickly, instead of being delivered through the vagina
cesarean section
A woman who helps with the birth process. TRaditionally in Latin America, like a midwife, the only professional who attended the birth process. NOw work alongside a hospital's medical staff
A disorder that results from damage to the brain's motor centers. People have difficulty with muscle control
cerebral palsy
A lack of oxygen that, if prolonged during birth, can cause brain damage or death
Care that occurs when the mother of a low weight infant spends at least an hour a day holding the infant between her breasts
kangaroo care
cooperation between mother and father based on their mutual commitment to their children. Parents agree to support eachother in their shared parental roles
parental alliance
A mother's feelings of sadness, inadequacy and hopelessness in the days and weeks after giving birth.
postpartum depression
THe strong, loving connection that forms as parents hold their newborn. Bonding probably begins beofre birth and continues throughout infancy
parent-infant bond

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