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AST 111


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Who was the first astronomer to determine that the moon was 384,000 km away? What Year?
Hipparchus 140B.C.
What is an Astronomical Unit? Who was it founded by.
The measure of distance in the Solar System. Giovanni Cassini in 1672.
What is a light year? who was it measured by?
closest star is 4.2 lightyears away. Friedrich Bessel 1838.
Longest day and shortest night.
Sunrise/set is farthest north
Highest position of the sun at noon.
Summer Solstice
Shortest day and longest night.
Sunrise and set occurring farthest south
Lowest position of sun at noon.
Winter Solstice
Sun moves north from the winter solstice.
Vernal or Spring equinox
Sun moves back to south
Autumnal or fall equinox.
Earth wobbles in space due to gravitational influence of the sun and moon. (Different Stars will become the north star)
Who invented preceision, and when?
Hipparchus 2nd century B.C.
Who measured the distance to the moon?
Who found a way to measure the earth and when?
Eratosthenes 200BC
The ____ is the apparent change in the position of an object due to a change in the location of the observer. Greek astronomers attempted to use what to measure the distance to the sun, moons, and planets, and stars.
What is geocentric?
What is Heliocentric
The timescale where the sun and moon appear to move from west to east relative to the stars. The moon completes one circuit in a month and the sun takes a year.
Retrograde Motion
Who wrote the Mathematical Syntext/ Al Magisti
Ptolemy in 2nd century AD
Ptolemy's Model
used until 1500 AD, most successful model in history.
Who built the theory that:
Stationary sun at the center
Earth and planets orbit sun
Planets farther go slower
Moon orbits earth
Earth rotates on axis
Copernican ( 1473-1543)
Who's theory: everything in the sky is wheeling around earth in some vast cosmic ballet.
Who's Theory: Erth rotatesm and makes it appear that everything else is moving
Who was the telescope made by
Dutch sectacle makers in 1608
Who used the first telescope
Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)
After supporting the Copernicus theory, Galileo discovered what 3 things
Moon has mountains and valleys
Mily Way is made of countless stars
Jupiter was accompanied by 4 moons
Moon has mountains and valleys
Mily Way is made of countless stars
Jupiter was accompanied by 4 moons
Were published in what book by who
The Starry messenger by Galileo in 1610
What were Jupiters moons called?
The Medici Family, then changed to the galilean moons.
What 3 things did Galileo discover about the Sun, Saturn, and Venus
Sun: Its rotation had imperfections we call sunspots
Saturn: Giant moons on either side, now called rings
Venus: a range of phases.
Which astronomer lost his nose in a duel
Tycho Brahe (1546-1601)
Who built an observatory and was 10 to 20 times more accurate.
Tycho Brahe
Who assisted and replaced Tycho Brahe
Johannes Kepler (1571-1630)
Who started the "War on Mars?"
Johannes Kepler
What is Keplers 1st Law?
Planets orbit the sun on ellipses
What is Kepplers 2nd law?
A straight line joining the plane and the Sun sweeps out equal areas in any 2 equal intervals of time.
The closest point of the orbit to the sun
The most distant point of the orbit from the sun
The longest distance across the orbit
Major Axis
The shortest distance across the orbit
Minor Axis
A value describing how "squashed" the orbit is
Time interval necessary to complete 1 orbit
What is Kepplers 3rd Law?
The cube of the semi major axis is related to the square of the period of a planets orbit.
When did kepler complete the Rudolphine Tables
Moving objects only chane their motion if they are acted on by a force...what law
Law of inertia
Who invented the 3 laws of motion
Isaac Newton.
Inverse square law
light weakens as it spreads out and travels.
What is the rason that our feet stay on the ground and the moon is still around?
Universal Gravitation
___ are one object falling around another due to gravity.
What are newtons 3 laws of motion?
1) a body continues to rest or in uniform motion in a straight line unless acted upon by some force.
2)The acceleration of a body is inversely proportional to its mass and directly proportional to the force, and in the same direction as the force.
3) To every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.
Solar tides are ___ the strenght of Lunar Tides
When the sun and moon are 90 degrees and cancel eachother its called...
Neap Tides
If a atom loses electrons, it can be called ___
The process of losing electrons is called____
Atoms with different numbers of neutrons are ____
Attractive, infininte range, weakest force
Attractive, repulive, infinite
Tranformation, veryshort range
Weak force
Attractive very short reang strangest
Strong force
The height or stranght of a wave
Distance between 2 crests
Number of wave crests that pass a given point each second
Time between successive wave crests
Beyond red are ___ light, beyond ____ is ____ waves
Infrared, infrared, radio
Beyond violet are ___ light, beyond ____ is ____ then ____
Ultraviolet, Xrays, gamma rays
Smallest pieces of light
2 telescopes
Reflection and refraction

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