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Developmenta chapter 2


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A group of ideas, assumptions, and generalizations that interpret and illuminate the thousands of observations about human growth.
developmental theory
Comprehensive theories of psychology which have traditionally inspired and directed psychologists' thinking about child development. Includes psychoanalytic, behaviorism and cognitive
Grand theories
Theories that focus on some specific topic.
THeories that bring together information from many disciplines and are becoming comprehensive and systematic in their interpretations of development but are not yet established and detailed enough to be considered grand theories
emergent theories
A grand theory of human development that studies observable behavior. DEscribes laws and processes by which behavior is learned
According to behaviorism, the process of learning through repeated practice
THe learning process that connects a meaningful stimulus with a neutral stimulus, which had no special meaning before conditioning
classical conditioning
THe learning process by which a particular action is followed by something desired or by something unwanted
operant conditioning
A technique for conditioning behavior in which that behavior is followed by something desired
An extension of behaviorism that emphasizes the power of other people over our behavior.
social learning theory
The central process of social learning, by which people observe the actions of others and then copy them
In social learning theory, the belief that one is effective.
A grand theory of human development that focuses on changes in how people think over time. According to this theory, our thoughts shape our attitudes, beliefs and behaviors
cognitive theory
In cognitive theory, the condition of mental balance, when people are not confused or bewildered because they can use their exsting thought processes to understand current experiences and ideas
cognitive equilibrium
An emergent theory that holds that development results from the dynamic results from the dynamic interaction between each person and the surrounding social and cultural forces.
sociocultural theory
In sociocultural theory, the process by which novices develop cognitives competencies. They work with more skilled members of the society, often parents or teachers who act as tutors or mentors
apprenticeship in thinking
In sociocultural theory, the most effective technique used by skilled mentors to help novices learn. They not only provide instruction but also allow direct, shared involvement in the activity
guided participation
A metaphorical "zone" or area surrounding a learner that includes all the skills, knowledge and concepts that the person is close to acquiring but cannot yet master without help
zone of proximal development
An emergent theory of development that includes both the genetic origins of behavior and the direct systematic influence that the environmental forces have, over time, on genes. The theory focuses on the dynamic interaction, over the edcades and centurie
epigenetic theory
THe belief that the form of development is permanently set before a person is born. Some developments appear in the course of maturation, but it is through time, not experience.
THe process by which humans and other animals gradually adjust to their enviroment.
selective adaptation
THe approach taken by most developmentalists, in which they apply aspects of each of the various theories of development rather than adhering exclusively to one theory
eclectic perspective
A general term for the trait, capacities, and limitations that each individual inherits genetically from his or her parents at the moment of conception
A general term for all the environmental influences that affect development after an idividual is conceived
A person's impulses and internal direction regarding sexual interest
sexual orientation

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