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Neurobiology Exam 1


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what is phrenology
reading bumps and bridges on teh skull, the brain is splitt into 35 centers, each grew with use and created a bulge in the skull above the area, corrulated with a persons personality, not valid
nerve cells
specialize in electrical signalsing over long distances
supporting cells
not capable of electric signaling
site for synaptic contacts
action potential
self generating electric wave starts at the axon hillock, extends to terminal regions of axon
synaptic transmission
highly specialized axon terminals, ap from one neuron to another
two divisions of the nervous system
central- brain cerebrum cerebellum brainstem
peripheral- sensory nerve fibers: peripherla sensory receptros to the brain and spinal cord and motor nerve fibers: connect brain/spinalcord to muscles and glands
two divisions of PNS
somatic- innerverates skeletal muscles, skin, and joints
autonomic- inerverates smooth muscles, cardiac muscles, and glands
groups of nerve cell bodies
bundles of axons and supporting cells
terms for sensory ganglia
dorsal root- adjacent to spinal cord
cranial nerve- adjacent to brainstem
ganglia have axons with two branches that...
one connects receptors at periphery, other enters spinal cord or brainstem
somatic vs autonomic
s controls skeletal muscles, voluntary, a forms synapses with motor neurons in autonomic ganglia, involuntary smooth and cardiac muscle
3 divisions of autonomic nervous system
enteric- regulates digestive function
sympathetic- increase activity, hr bp, noradrenaline used as neurotransmitter
parasympathetic- decrease activity, hr bp, acetylcholine as neurotransmitter
similarites between p and s
both are efferent pathways, 1st neuron is preganglionic, second is postganglionic
s vs p preganglionic neurons
s- 2 chains on opposite side of spinal cord
p- distant from spinal cord
the human brain has...
prefontal cortex larger than all other animals
massive number of synaptic connects, allows for parallel processing
gray matter
acccumulation of neuron cells bodies and neuropil within brain and spinal cord
whiter matter
consists mostly of axon tracts
groups of neurons with similar connections
sheet like array of cells
major fiber tracks that connect the cerebellum to the brain stem
regulates the endocrine system
in the later view the ____ can be seen
cerebral hemispheres
cerebral cortex
entire outer wrinkled surface 2mm thick of neurons and supporting cells
central sulcus
separates frontal lobe from parietal lobe
precentral gyrus motor cortex
neurons with axons extending to brain stem/spinal cord to skeletal muscle
postcentral gyrus
somatice sensory cortex, bodily sensation
occipital lobe falls between the ___ and ___ and is in charge of ____
parieto occipital suolcus and the preoccipital notch, visual
frontal lobe
parietal lobe
temporal lobe
occipital lobe
planning and behavior
responding to certain stimuli
recognition of objects and faces
visual analysis
insular cortex/insula
hidden beneath frontal and temporal lobes
olfactory tracts
near midline, inferior surface of frontal lobe, arrise from anterior end of bulbs
olfactory bulbs
inputs from rootlets of first cranial nerve
cranial nerves 2-12
connect brain to sensory organs and head muscles
hippocampus is concealed by the ___
parahippocampmal gyrus folded into medial temporal lobe
functions of the limbic system
regulate visceral motor activity and emotional expression
3 deep lying structures of cerebral hemispheres
basal ganglia- regulate motor performance
hippocampus- memory storage
amygdaloid nuclei- autonomic an dendocrine responses to emotional states
3 major structures of the diencephalon
dorsal thalamus- largest, multiple subdivisions
subthalamus- control of motor function
hypothalamus- endocrine function, homeostatic control, reproductive control linked to pituitary
midbrain pons medulla
parts of the midbrain
cerebral peduncles- 2 large fiber bundles
cranial nerve III
oculomotor nerve
crainial nerve IV
trochlear nerve, only cranial nerve to exit the brain dorsally
cranial nerve V
trigeminal nerve, only cranial nerve from pons
cranial nerves VI-X and XII
from medulla/pons junction
2 pairs of colliculi
superior culliculus- rostral eye movement
inferior colliculus- caudal auditory processing
Spinal cord division
cervical thoracic sacral lumbar coccygeal
segmental spinal nerves
dorsal roots- afferent axons enter cord, carry sensory info
ventral roots- efferent axons leave cord, motor commands
cervical and lumbar enlargement
(c5-t1) upper limbs
(l2-s3) lower limbs
largest structure in teh cerebrum basal ganglia is the
audate and putamen nucluei, striatum
why is the bg functionally unique?
no direct input or output from spinal cord
primary input from cerebral cortex
primary output from brainstem and prefrontal cortex
major role in motor control, because of parkinsons and huntingtons disease
basal forebrain nuclei
important in alzheimers
front of hippocampus, emotional processing
corpus collosum
axon tracts connecting cerebral hemispheres
types of axon tracts
internal capsule- pathway connecting cerebral cortex to brain and spinal cord
fornix- interconnects hippocampus and hypothalamus
cerebral ventricles
interconnected fluid filled spaces
lateral ventricle
one in each brain, largest
3rd ventricle
between thalamus
4th ventricle
within pons and medulla
anoroid plexus
within ventricles form cerebralspinal fluid
Meninges- 3 protective layers surrounding cranial cavity
dura matter- thick outermost layer
arachnoid matter- spiderlike processes
pia matter- thin layer, adheres to brain
at the medulla, vertebral arteries give off branches that merge to form
anterior spinal artery
vertebral artery gives rise to
paired posterior spinal arteries
10-12 segmental arteries join to asa called
medullary arteries
_____ supply the forebrain
anterior and middle cerebral arteries
protection of the bloodbrain barrier is important because...
protection from pathogens
homeostasis- if neurons were exposed to flux of ions and hormoes they would fire constantly
neurons are ____ electrical conductors
not goo
neurons utilize a booster system to conduct electrical signals called
an action potential
basic nervous system function is to
general and integrate nerve impulses
measured potential of separation of charge volt mv
increase in charge difference=
increase in voltage
meausre of e flow amps pA
inhibits e flow
charge separation is represented by
separation of ions of opposite charge across a membrane
passive channels
leak channels are always open
active channels
gated or controlledd
electrical current flows when
ions flow through a channel
all or none response
only current above threshold stimulates AP
larger current ____ a larger AP
does not stimulate
larger or longer current stimulates
multiple APs
active transporters move ions
against concentration gradients
ion channels
selective ions can move across
transporters/ion channels
oppose each other and generate a rmp
glia cells are permeable to _
k, higher k inside cell than outside
when electrical force driving K into cell=chemical force driving k out of cell, then
differences at the membrane
generate potential
why is inside a - rmp
membrane is primarily permeable to k
more k inside than outside neuron
phases of ap
rising phase= increase in na permeability
overshoot= near ena potential +58mv
falling phase-decline in na permeability
undershoot- k permeability during rmp hyperpolarized
voltage clamping
holds membrane potential at command voltage regardless of permeability changes
measures current required to keep the membrane potential at the desired setting
with na outside vs with no na outside
early inward current/ early current is outward
depolarizing potential
early current na flux= outside to inside
early current k flux= inside to outside
ttx blocks na currents, small inward current early
tea blcoks k currents, late current very low
Iion=gion (vm-eion)
solve for conductance, gion
events of an ap
na enters the cell, depolarized
with time depolarization rate decreases, na conductance is inactivating
k current is advanced k leaves cell, repolarizes mp
aps are regenerative self-supporting because of a____
+ feedback loop of na conductance
passive current flow
electrical properties of neurons provide on short distance signaliing with no ap
amplitude and rate of response decrease with distance because...
current leaks out across the membrane
conduction velocity
when the ap occurs at a later time at a distance from the initial current pulse
why doesnt the ap go backwards?
increased density of voltage gated na channels forward
refractory period of na channel
2 forms of current flow for ap propagation
passive flow of current along the axon
active flow of current through ion channels na k
2 ways to increase speed of signal in axon
increase diameter of axon
insulate the membrane to current flow, myelinated axon goes much faster
transport proteins
carrier proteins- binds solutes, conformational change
channel proteins- water filled pores across membranes
primary active transport moves ions
against ECG needs ATP, pumps
secondary AT
utilizes ecg
coupled transport-symporters and antiporters
carrier proteins are similar to enzymes
specific binding site
transport rate maximal at saturation
binding constant for solute
blocked by competetive inhibitors
non gated ion channels are important in
voltage gated channels are important in
action potentials
ligand gated channels are important in
synaptic potential transmission
ligand gated channels
open close with ligand binding
mechanically gated channels
pressure/stretch sensitive
water channels
aquaporins- waterflow/osmoreceptor
neurons are nearly___ of cell energy
diseases affecting voltage gated channels are
mytonia- delayed na response due to increase in ap firing
paralysis larger depolarization of muscle rmp

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