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social psych ch 3


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automatic thinking
thinking that is nonconscious, unintentional, and effortless
mental structures people use to organize their knowledge abou tthe social world around themes or subjects and that influence the information people notice, think about, and remember
the extent to which schemas and concepts are at the forefront of people's minds and are therefor likely to be used when we are making judgments about the social world
the process by which recent experiences increase the accessibility of a schema, trait, or concept
perserverance effort
the finding that people's beliefs about themselves and the social world persist even after the evidence supporting these beliefs is discerned
self-fulfilling prophecy
the case whereby people (1) have an expectation about what another person is like, which (2) influences how they act toward that person, which (3) causes that person to behave consistently with the people's original expectations, making the expectations come true
judgmental heuristics
mental shortcuts people use to make judgments quickly and efficiently
availability heuristic
a mental rule of thumb whereby people base a judgment on the ease with which they can bring something to mind
representativeness heuristic
a mental shortcut whereby people classify something according to how similar it is to a typical case
base rate information
information about the frequency of members of different categories in the population
anchoring and adjustment heuristic
a mental shortcut whereby people use a number or value as a starting point and then adjust insufficiently from this anchor
controlled thinking
thinking that is conscious, intentional, voluntary, and effortful
counterfactual thinking
mentally changing some aspect of the past as a way of imagining what might have been
overconfidence barrier
the fact that people usually have too much confidence in the accuracy of their judgments
thought suppression
the attempt to avoid thinking about something we would prefer to forget

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