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Human Anatomy Chapter 5


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At what level of the heirarchy does the skin fall into?
The skin is considered an organ a group of individual cells (skin cells, sebaceous glands, sweat glands, hair, nails) come together to serve a common function.
About what percentage of the body's weight is made up of skin?
7%- the largest organ.
The skin is divided into three layers what are they?
which of the three layers is not considered part of the integummentary system?
What are some of the major functions of the skin?
- provides protection from bumps and cuts, chemicals, burns, bacteria.

-minimizes water loss and heat loss.

-senses the outside environment.
What kind of tissue makes up the epidermis?
Kertanized statified squamous epithelial tissue.
What are the four distinct cells in the epidermis?
Merkel cells
Langerhans cells
Which of the four cells that make up the epidermis are most abundant? what are their function?

Their function is to create keratin- a tough fibrous protein that gives the epidermis its protective properties.
In addition to producing keratin, what other products do keratinocytes produce to protect the body?
antibiotics and enzymes that detoxify the harmful chemicals to which are skin is exposed.
What are the two clases of skin do the epidermis create? Where are they found? How many layers of epidermis make each class of skin?
Thick skin- made of 5 layers and is found on soles of hands and feet

Thin skin- made up of four layers and is found on the rest of the body.
Recall that thick skin epidermis consists of 5 layers of epidermis. What layer is present here that is NOT in thin skin epidermis?
The Stratum Lucidum
What are the four think skin epidermal layers?
Stratum basale
stratum spinosum
stratum granulosum
stratum corneum
-Where is the stratum basale found?
-how many cell layers thick is it?
-which of the four type of epidermal cells can be found here?
the stratum basale is the deepest epidermal layer (attached to dermis).

It is one cell layer thick.

keratinocytes (as stem cells), Merkel cells (associated with sensory nerves), and melanocytes.
-Where is the stratum spinosum found?
-how many cell layers thick is it?
-what kind of cells can be found in this region and what are thier function?
Just superficial to the stratum basale.

It is several cell layers thick.

Keratinocytes, Langerhans cells (immune response), tonofilaments (allows for skin tension)
-Where is the stratum granulosum found?
-how many cell layers thick is it?
-what cells can be found in this region and what are thier purpose?
just superficial to the spinosum. last live layer

between one and five.

consists of keratinocytes and other granules which produce keratin for strengthening superficial layers.
Also contains lamellated granules which produce a waterproof glycolipid for water-proofing the skin.
-Where is the stratum lucidum found?
-what cells can be found in this region and what are thier purpose?

just superficial to the granulosum. (dead skin)

a few roles of dead flat keratinocytes.
-Where is the stratum Corneum found?
-how many cell layers thick is it?
-what cells can be found in this region and what are thier purpose?
the most external epidermal layer. (dead)

Many cells thick

Made up of dead keratinocytes that are called cornified or horny cells.
What three pigments types are responsible for skin color?
Melanin ranges between what three colors.

It is made from what amino acid?

It is responsible for what on the surface of the skin?


moles and freckles.
Melanin passes from __________ cells to __________ cells in _________ cell layer of the epidermis.
melanocytes; kertanocytes; stratum basale.

ranges from which to colors?

accumulates where?

stratum corneum

produces what color in skin?

where can it be found?

in the capillaries within the dermis. Seen in the cheeks of Caucasians as a result of such little melanin.
What is cyanosis?
When hemoglobin is poorly oxygenated and the skin appears blue.
what creates bruises?
Hematomoa is the medical term for bruising where blood has escaped from the capillary.
The dermis of the skin is made up of what tissue?
strong, flexible CONNECTIVE TISSUE.
What are the two layers in the DERMIS?
Papillary layer

Recticular layer
Papillary layer

-where can it be found?

-what percentage of the dermis does it make up?

-what kind of tissue makes up this layer?
the more superficial layer of the dermis. Deeper than the stratum basale.


areolar connective tissue with lots of collagen and elastic fibers.
Reticular layer

-where can it be found?

-what percentage of the dermis does it make up?

-made up of what tissue?
just deeper than the paplillary layer.


dense irregular connective tissue with massive amounts of collagen and elastic fibers.
Within the dermis the following cells give some kind of tactile sensation. Name it.

- Free nerve endings
- Meissner's Corpuscles
- Pacinian Corpuscles
deep pressure
What is the purpose of hair?
No real purpose
-warmth (goose bumps)
What cells make up hair?
Dead keratinized cells.
A strand of hair is made of two types of keratin. what are they and which is more prominent?
hard and soft keratin. Mostly hard keratin.
How is hair color determined?
By the amount of melanin in the hair cells.

Alot= black
in the middle= brown
a little bit= blonde.
None= white/grey
How quickly does hair grow?
about 2mm every week
what causes male pattern baldness?
A late onset of a gene that delays the growth period of hair. Thus hair falls out faster than the rate at which it is replaced.

-made of what epidermal layer?
-rate of growth
compressed (keratinized) stratum corneum (horny cells)
What must occur to be considered the following class of burns:

1st degree
2nd degree
3rd degree
1st- damage to the epidermis

2nd- damage to the epidermis and dermis (w/ blistering)

3rd- epidermis, dermis and often part of the hypodermis are destroyed.
What is the rule of nines?
provides a quick semi-accurate determination of the % of skin burned by assigning a percentage to each portion of the body (determined by surface area).
What are the "ABCD(E)'s" of skin cancer?
-Border irregularity
- color
- diameter
- elevation
What are the three forms of skin cancer?

Which is worst? why?
Basal cell carcinoma

Squamous cell carcinoma

Melanoma (the worst form) because it commonly metastisizes.
With age the follwing three characteristics occur in the skin.
Thinner- fat is lost from the hypodermis

Dryer- less sweat and sebaceous gland functioning.

Less elastic- b/c of less colalgen

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