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Human Anatomy- Chapter 2


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copy deck
Drilling in someones head to allow the spirits out
Litterally, what does anatomy mean?
to cut up
Important events in early anatomy
3400 B.C- First lab manual
400 B.C- hippocratic oath
1500 A.D- DiVinci
1895- X-rays discovered
1953- DNA discovered
Why is the cellular level so important?
being the lowest LIVE level, it is the most basic level at which dysfunctions and diseases originate.
Cells are considered alive because?
they are self sustaining. They carry out all the functions required: nutrition, waste removal, engage in gas exchange, and most reproduce.
In what environment do most cells live?
Most cells have the following organelles. Give the function of each of the following:

Plasma membrane
Plasma membrane- protective membrane with selective permeability for nutrients.

Cytoplasm- clear, thick material which functions to transport nutrients and wastes throught the cell.

Nucleus- controls chemical and reproductive functions.
Plama membrane


-lipid bilayer with hydrophobic centers and hydrophyllic heads.
-made of lipids, glycolipids and cholesterol (fluidity of membrane- fluid mosaic)
-several proteins embedded
what are the three categories of proteins embedded in the membrane?
1.) integral
2.) peripheral
3.) Transmembrane
plasma membrane

-methods of transport
-diffusion- down a concentration gradient. No ATP required. (CO2 and O2)

-Exocytosis- where a vesicle forms around products and fuses with presynaptic membrane emptying contents outside cell.

-endocytosis- moving substances into the cell
The method of transport endocytosis is further broken down into two categories. what are they?
-pinocytosis- cell"drinking".

-phagocytosis- cell "eating"
Most cells (exception: sex cells) divide by what mechanism? What is the purpose of such division?

To regenerate dying cells, organism growth, and to replace damaged cells.
Cellular replication occurs at various rates. For the following rates name which organs or systems replace their cells in this manner.

As needed
Never- Nerve cells and muscle cells.

As needed- liver and kidneys (hence the "piece" transplant

Constant: skin, blood cells, GI tract.
What are the two changes that can occur in the cell?
Hypertrophy- growth of cells

Atrophy- loss of cell volume
What is a neoplasm?
a non-encapsulated fast-growing, cancerous cell.
what are the two classes of neoplasms (tumors)?
Benign- slow contained growth

Malignant- rapid growth with possible metastisizing.

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