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Glossary of xxTerwin: Living Matter

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Lipids

Fatty acids that provide:
Energy storage.
Insulation/padding to vital organs.
Structural component of cell membranes (phospholipids).
Phospholipids

Structural component of cell membranes.
Saturated Fats

Animal fats that harden at room temperature.
Unsaturated Fats

Plant fats/oils that remain liquid at room temp.

Limited ability to pack together tightly.

Proteins

Toolbox of cell.
Structural components of cells & organisms (skin, hair, muscles).
Messengers & Receptors.
Defense against disease.
Transport, such as Hemoglobin.
Enzymes.
Enzymes

Proteins that assist in chemical reactions in cells.
Work with ‘lock-n-key’ fit.
Substrate binds with enzyme at active site.
Binding reorients chemical bonds, increases rate of substrates breaking down or rate of creating new molecules.
Nucleic Acids
Info machine of cell.
Source of genetic info in chromosomes.
Molecules that dictate amino acid sequence in proteins.
Nucleotides

Building blocks of Nucleic acids:
1. 5-carbon sugar (deoxyribose or ribose)
2. Nitrogenous base.
3. Phosphate group.

DNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid forms genes.
Stores info in codes 3 nucleotides long: triplet codons.
Code for amino acids.
Triplet Codons

In DNA, codes 3 nucleotides long.

CGA=glycine.
DNA Function

Code proteins in AA sequence.
Shape determines function.
Perfom most chemical reactions that keep cells alive.
RNA

Ribonucleic acid helps control of cellular chemical activities.

Uracil replaces Thymine.
Ribose replaces deoxyribose.
Prokaryote

Don’t have a nucleus.
Don’t have membrain-bound organelles.
Eukaryote

More complex.
Have nucleus.
Plant & animal cells.
Unicellular organisms
Amoeba, Euglena.
Cell Theory Part I
Cells or products made by cells are units of structure & function in organisms.
Cell Theory Part II
All cells come from pre-existing cells. Life begets life.
Cells in Humans
Humans made of trillions of cells.
Vary in size white blood cell (um) to nerve cell (cm)
Bacteria’ (a prokaryote) Parts

Flagellum, Cell Wall, Plasma membrane, Nucleoid, Ribosomes.
Animal cell’s (a eukaryote) parts

Plasma membrane, Microvillus, Microfilament, Smooth endoplasmic reticulum, Mitochondrion, Rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, Lyosome, Robosomes, Centriole, Nucleus.

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