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Glossary of vocabulary chaper 9

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Developmental Psychology
Branch of psychology that studdies the systematic changes that occured in the lifespan.
Maturation
Biological unfolding of an organizim according to the underlying blueprint.
Ovulation
The realeasing of an egg cell from an ovary.
Ovaries
Female gonads which secrete the female hormones estrogen and progesterone and produce mature egg cells.
Fallopian tube
A strawlike tube that coonects the ovaries to the uterus.
Zygote
Fertilized egg cell
Germinal Stage
Stage of prenatal development that spans from fertilization to implantation.
Fertilization
The union of sperm and ovum.
Uterus
The female reproductive organ in which the fetrtilized ovum becoms implanted and develops to term .
embryonic stage
the stage of prenatal development from implantation through about the 8th week of pregnancy in which the major organ systems begin to form.
embryo
the developing organism in an early stage of prenatal development
neural tube
the area in the embryo from which the nervous system develops and begins to form.
amniotic sac
the uterine sac that contains the fetus
placenta
the organ that porvides the exchange of nutrients and waste materials between mother and fetus.
fetal stage
the satge off prenatal developement in which the fetus develops beginning around the 9th week of pregnancy and lasting through the birth of the child.
teratogen
an environmental agent that may cause harm to the developing embryo or fetus.
rubella
a common childhood disease that can lead to serious birth defects if contracted by the mother during pregnancy also called german measles
rooting reflex
the reflexive turning of the newborn's head in the direction of a touch on the cheeck
sucking reflex
the rythemic sucking in the response to stimulation of the tongue or mouth
moro reflex
the inborn reflex elicited by a sudden noise or loss of support in which the infant extend his arms arches his back and brings his arms toward each other in attemp to grab ahold of someoone
palmar grasp reflex
reflexitive curling of the infants fingers when an object touches his palms
babinsky reflex
the reflexive fanning out and curling of the infants toes and inward twisting of its foot when the sole is stroked.
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)
the sudden and unexplained death of infants that usually occurs when they are asleep in their cribs
Fetal alcohol syndrom
A syndrom caused by material use of alcohol during pregnancy in which the child shows development delays and facial deformaties.
Temperament
A charactoristic style of behavior or disposition
Attatchment
The enduring emotional bond that infants and older children form with caregivers
imprinting
the formation of a strom bond of the newborn animal to the first moving object seen after birth
Schema
To Piaget, a mental framework for understanding or acting on the environment
adaptation
To Piaget, the process of adjustment that enables people to function more effectively in meeting demands they face in the environment.
Assimulation
To Piaget, the process of incorporating new objects or situations into existing schemas
Object performance
The recognition that objects continue to exist even if they have dissapeared from sight
symbolic representation
a term referring to the use of words to represent (name) objects and describe experiences.
egocentrism
to Piaget the tendancy to see the world only from one's own perspective
animistic thinking
to Piget, the childs beliefs that inanimate object have living qualities.
rriversability
to piaget the inability to reverse the direction of the sequence of events to their starting point.
centration
the tendancy to only focus on only one aspect of a situation at a time.
conservation
in piaget theory the ability to reconize that the quantity of an object remains constant during superficail changed in its outward apperance
formal operations
the level of full cognitive ability maturity in piagets theroy charactorized by the ability to think in abstract terms
zone of proximal development
in Vygotsky's throry, the range between children's present level of knowledge and their potential knowledge state if they recieve proper guidance in instruction.
adolescence
the period of life beginning at puberty and ending with early adulthood.
puberty
the stage of development at which individulas become physiologically capable of preproducing
secondary sex charactoristics
physical charactoristics that differentiate males and females but are not directly involved in reproduction
primary sex charactoristics
physical charactoristics, such as gonads, that differentiate males and females and play a different role in reproduction.
menarch
the first menstruation
imaginary audience
the common beliefe among adolescence that they are teh center of peoples attention
personal fable
the common beliefe among adolecence that their feelings and experiences cannot possible be understood by others and they are personally invulnerable to harm
ego identity
in erikson's theroy, the attainment in physiological sense of knowing oneself and one's direction in life
identity crisis
in erikson's thoery, a sucessful perioud of serious soul searching and self examination of issues relating to personal values and one's direction in life.
role diffusion
in erickson's model, a lack of direction or aimlessness with respect to one's role in life or public identity.
fluid intelligence
a form of intelligence associated with the ability to think abstractly and flexibly in solving problems.
crystallized intelligence
a form of intelligence associated with the ability to use accumulated knowledge
menopause
the time of life when menstruation ends
emerging adulthood
the period od psychosocial development, roughly spanning the ages of 18-25 during which the person makes the transition from adolecence to adulthood.

midlife crisis
a state of physiological crisis often occuring during middle adulthood, in which people grapple with the loss of their youth
dementia
a condition involving a major deterioration or loss of mental abilities involved in memory, reasoning, judgement, and ability to carry out purposeful behavior.
alzheimer's disease
an irreversable brain disease with a progressive coarse of deterioration of mental functioning
osteoperosis
a bone disease charactorized by a loss of bone density in which the bones become pourous, brittle and more prone to fracture.
What are the stages of prenatal development in order?
1)prenatal period- conception to birth.
2)infancy period-bith to 1 year
3)Toddler period- 1-3 years
4)Preschool period- 3-6 years
5)Middle childhood- 6-12 years
6)Adolescence- 12-18 years
7)Young adulthood0 18-40 years
8)Middle adulthood-40-65 years
9)Late adulthood-65 years and older.







What is depth perception and how was it studied.
Depth perception usually develops around 6 months or older. Using a visual cliff apparaus consisting of a glass panel that consisting of a glass panel that covers an apparant sudden drop-off, Elanor Gibson, and Richard walk, showed that most infants at about 6 months or older will hesitate and then refuse to crawl across the deep side, indicating that they have developed depth perception.
What age can infants read different facial expressions?
by 4-6 months babies can discriminate against happy, angry or neutral face.
What age can a baby reconize the parents faces?
shortly after birth
What age can infants stand without support?
by 1 year but as early as 7 or 8 months
NYLS (New york Longitudinal Study) What are the 3 different styles of temperament?
Easy child- playful respond positively to new stimuli, adapt easily to change, happy engaging mood, quick to develop regular sleeping and eating scheduals, 40% in this class

Difficult children- React negitively to new situations or people, irritable dispositions, difficulty establishing regular sleeping eating schedules 10 % fell in this class

Slow-to-warmup children. (inhibite children by others) low activity levels,avoid novel stimuli,require more time to adjust, withdraw in unfamniliar situations,n mildly distressed, or subdued. 15 % IN THIS GROUP



What are some attachment style?
1)Secure type (type B)- used mothers as a secure base for exploring their environments, periodically looking around to check on where abouts and limiting exploration when she was absent. They sometimes cried when the mother left the room warmly geeted when se arrived

2) Insecure avoidant type (type A) paid little attention to the moter when she was in the room, seperated easily to explore teh environment.

3) Insecure resistant type (type c)- clingy and reluctant to explore, hig level of distress when leaving



what are some effects of attachment on daycare?
full time day care may interfere with infants attachment to mother. kindergardeners who spent more time in day cares tended to be more agressive
Wha are the 3 different types of parenting styles?
Ahotitative Style. reasonable limits for the child- not overwhelming, athority figure, understanding, willing to give advice,willing to listen to child's concern,explain reason to the descisions instaed of laying down.

Athoritarian- rigid, overwhelming, expect and demandn unquestioned obediance for their child, likely because i said no

Permissive style- anything goes



Wat is erickson's stages of psychosocial decelopment in order?
1)Trust vs. Mistrust- warmly and responsive to need child has trust. Parents seldom there,mistrust
Disreguar other card...
Erikson's stages of psychosocial development in order
1)trust vs. mistrust-
parent,- warm and responsive,
child- trust
parent-seldom there
child,-deteached, cold, mistrust

2)autonomy vs. shame and doubt

parent- encourage child to greater independance, nurture to newfound development
child-third or 4th year mobile around the home, gettin into everything,
parent-demands too much too soon, excessive demands children cannot meet
child-riddeled self doubt shme

3)initiative vs. guilt-
parent - praised for accomplishments
child- sense of initiavtive and cempetence

contrast- children who frequently fail "cant get things "right" guilt opwerelessness, especially if they ridiculed or harshly criticised for their akwardness or missteps

3)industry vs, inferiority
elementary school 6-12, central challenge of self confidence, if children feel they are performing competently in the classroom and on the playing field in relation to their peers, they may become industrious by taking active role. if failure outwieghed success feelings of inadequacy or inferiority causing child to be withdrawn or unmotivated



















what is adolecent thinking behavior like?
teenagers are very egocentric. two ways it reveals itself in teenagers are imaginary audience, which is when the teenagers think that everyone is keenly interested in their conversations or his or her own needs. the second is a personal fable, which is a exadderated sense of one's uniqueness, and invulnerability, "noone can possibly understand"
What was Kholeberg's model of development
how individuals make moral judgement about conflict-ladden issues. wat makes something right or wrong
ch10

personality

the relatively stable constellation of psychological charactorisics and behavioral patterns that account for ourindividuality and consistancy over time
ch 10

psychoanalytic therory

Freud's theory of personality that holds that personality and behavior are shaped by unconscious forces and conflicts
What is the Iceberg Analogy?
Unconscious is like a large mass of iceberg laying under the surface of the water. It contains primitive sexual and agressive implulses as well as memories of troubeling emotional experiences (traumatizing events) and unacceptable sexual behavior wishes or ideas. The contents of the unconcious cannot be brought into consciousness simply by focusing on them; they are brought into consciousness only with great difficulty, if at all. With so much of its contents of the mind mired in the conscious, we remain unaware of our deepest wishes, idead, and urges.
conscious
to freud, the part of the mind corresponding to the state of present awareness.
preconscious
to freud, the part of the mind whos contents can be brought into awareness through focused attention
unconscious
to freud the part of the mind that lays outside the range of ordinary awareness and that holds troubeling or unaccepted urges, impulses, memories
id
Freud's term for physical structure in the unconscious that contain our baser animal drives and instinctual impulses.
ego
freud's term for the physical structure that attempts to imbalance the instinctual demands of the id with social realities and expectations.
superego
Freud's term for the psychic structure that corresponded to an internal immoralguardian or conscious.
pleasure principal
in freudian history a theory governing a principal of the id thaT is based on demand for instant gratification without reguard to social rules or customers
reality principal
in freudian theory the governing principal of the ego that takes into account what is practical and acceptable in satisfying basic needs
what are the stages of psychosexual development in order?
oral stage is stage 1- infants recieve sexual gratification through oral stimulation (sucking mouthing, biting)

anal stage-in freudian theory, the second stage of psychosexual developmentis during which sexual gratification is centered on processes of elimination(retention and release of bowel contents.)

phallic stage is stage 3
oedipus complex which involves development of incestuous desires. desire of parent of the opposit sex

latency stp 4
6yrs - puberty, sexual impulses believed to be dormant at this time, ( latent)
genital step final stage
time of puberty- girls may be attracted to boys who resemble ( dear old dad) boys seek girls who marry their ( dead old mother )
who came up with womb envy
Karen Horney
who is cattell? what did he study?
raymond catell believed there are two basic levels of traits.surface traits lie on the surface of the person's personality. the second is source traits , general factors of personality
eyesenk's model
constructed simpler model of personality using 3 major traits, introversion, solitary reserved, extraversion,outgoing friendly,

neuroticism, instability, anxious

psychotism-cold antisocial, hostile, insensitive



locus out of controle?
believe can obtain reinforcement through work and effort
What are bandura's ides about relationships, cognition and environments?
he sees people as active agents in directing their lives. demonstrated reciprocal determinism. influence each other.
what is self esteem related to according to social cognitive theroists?
higher self esteem to better emoional and physical health low risk crim behav
what is the difference between collectiveness and individualistic cultures??
collectivistic cultures view the self in terms of the role or place of the individual whithin the larger group of society. Individualistic cultures emphasize the uniqueness of individuality of the self.
what is the big 5 personality model?
1) neuroticism- proness to anxiety worry, guilt, emotional instability vs. calm relaxed...
2)Extraversion- outgoing frriendly enthousiastic, vs solitary shy...
3)Openness- imaginative curious intellectual vs. conforming practical, conventional
4)agreeableness- sensitive warm, tollereant, easy vs. cold suspicious hostile callous
5)conscientiousness- reliable responsible, self-disciplined vs disorganized unreliable lax impulse careless



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