Glossary of terminology, Anatomy, chap 1

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structures, or morphology, of body parts - their forms and organization
functions of body parts
human organism
human parts that form a well-organized unit
smallest particle of an elelment that has the propeties of that element
a particle composed of two or more joined atoms
a very large molecule
the structural and functional unit of an organism
a part of a cell that performs a specialized function
a group of similar cells that performs a specialized function
a structure cocsisting of a group of tissues with a specialized function
an individual living thing
organ systems
organs that function together
all of the chemical reactions in cells that use or release energy
requirement of organisms
water, food, oxygen, heat, pressure
*most abundant substance in the body, *It is required for a variety of metabolic processes and provides the environment in which most of them take place, *transports substances, *regulates body temperature
*substance that provide organisms with necessary chemicals (nutrients) in addition to water. *Nutrients supply energy and raw materials for building new living matter
*gas that makes up about 1/5 of the air. *used in the process of releasing energy from nutrients. *the energy in turn, is used to drive metabolic processes
*a form of energy. *a product of metabolic reactions, and it partly controls the rate at which these reactions occur. *generally, the more heat, the more rapidly chemical reactions take place.
application of force on an objects or substance
atmospheric pressure
the force acting on the outside of a land organism due to the weight of air above it is called. in humans this plays an important role in breathing
hydrostatic pressure
pressure exerted by a liquid - due to the weight of water above them - an example is blood pressure
a state of equilibrium in which the internal enviroment of the body remains in the normal range
conditions and elements that make up the surroundings of the body
internal enviroment
conditions and elements that make up the inside of the body, surrounding the cells
extracellular fluid
body fluid outside the individual cells
homeostatic mechanisms
monitors an aspect of the internal environment and corrects any changes
what do all homeostatic mechanisms have in common?
1 receptors - providing info about condition (stimuli)in the internal enviroment.
2 a control center & set point - tells what a particular value should be (such as body temp)
3 effectors - muscles or glands, which cause responses that alter conditions in the internal enviromment
negitive feedback
In a homeostatic mechanism a response decribing when returning toward normal and the deviation from the set point progressively lessons, and the effectors are gradually shut down
normal range
refering to the range that is clinically important when dealing with homeostatic mechanisms. i.e. pH normal range is between 7.35 to 7.45
a measure of the amount of heat present

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