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Glossary of seizures

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idiopathic epilepsy
(primary)
-no known cause
-genetic component
-usually generalized seizures
-may see partial seizures
-can be due to old lesion that isn't seen on image/tap (cats)
seizure
-transient
-involuntary
-cerebral cortex involvement
-epileptiform activity on EEG
aura
-period before seizure
-lasts minutes to hours
-may see behavior changes
ictus
-time of seizure
-30 sec to 2 min.
post-ictus
-minutes to several days
-transient ataxia, weakness, dementia, +/- blindness, paralysis
symptomatic
(as opposed to primary)
1. structural (SES-secondary epileptic seizures)
2. reactive/metabolic (RES-reactive epileptic seizures)
RES (Reactive Epileptic Seizures)-symptomatic
-reversible if metabolic/toxic abnormality is corrected
SES (secondary epileptic seizure)-symptomatic
-injuries secondary to neoplasia, inflammation, head trauma, vascular events or congenital malformations
status epilepticus
-non-interrupted seizure
-lasts 20-30 minutes
cluster seizure
-2 or more seizures in a 24 hour period
generalized seizures
-symmetrical, loss of consciousness, +/- motor activity
1. grand mal
2. myoclonic
3. atonic
4. petit mal
grand mal seizure
-generalized
-tonic stiffening alternating with clonic (flexor) contractions
-ANS release of urine, BM, salivation
-lasts 30-90 secs.
atonic seizure
-generalized
-rare in vet med
-flaccid collapse and unconsciousness
petit mal seizure
-generalized
-non-convulsive
-periods of unconsciousness, blank staring and reduced muscle tone
-not tonic-clonic
myclonic seizure
-generalized
-rare
-single or repetitive jerks
partial/focal seizure
1. simple-asymmetrical, retention of consciousness, contralateral, excitatory or inhibitory
2. complex-usually involve temporal lobe, fly-biting, sometimes lateralizing

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