Glossary of renal diseases
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- what are GLOMERULAR diseases?
- diseases that cause direct injury to the glomerulus.
- What symptoms are present in GLOMERULAR diseases?
- Which of these symptoms is almost always present?
- What 5 basic reactions are associated with GLOMERULAR diseases?
- 1. Immune-complex
2. Proliferation of cells
3. Thickening of Basemt memb.
4. Infiltration of PMNs/macroph
5. Sclerosis scars
- Which basic reaction is most often seen?
- Immune-complex associated.
- How do immune complexes cause glomerular disease?
- By depositing IgA or IgG complexes in the glomeruli.
- What symptoms appear with Acute Glomerulonephritis?
-edema, headaches, low back pain, oliguria.
- What infection is AGN associated with?
- Group A streps
- What pathological process occur in AGN?
- -Immune complexes deposit
-Mesangial cells proliferate and WBCs infiltrate.
-Glomerulus dmg allows protein and blood into filtrate.
- What are the lab findings seen in AGN?
- -Many RBCs - hematuria.
- What 4 conditions must be present for casts to form?
- 1. Acidic pH
4. Salt (high sp gr)
- What is "Crescentic RPGN"?
- Rapidly Progressive Glomerulo-nephritis. The progression of AGN.
- What pathological processes occur in RPGN?
- 1. Immune complexes deposit in glomerulus.
2. Macrophages dmg capillary walls.
3. Leaked cells/fibrin form in Bowman's space, damage it.
- What is worse: RPGN or AGN? Why?
- RPGN; usually ends in renal failure. APGN can recover.
- What type of disorder is Goodpastures?
Who is it seen in?
- What are the complications that occur in goodpasture's, and why?
- Renal and pulmonary.
B/c an antibody develops against alveolar and basement membranes.
- What is the prognosis of Goodpastures?
- Poor - usually progresses to CGNor renal failure.
- What is the main pathology in Membranous Glomerulonephritis?
- Diffuse thickening of the basement membrane.
- Why is MGM bad?
- 1. Vessels get obliterated and glomerulus can't function.
2. Major cause of Nephrotic syndrome in adults.
- What are the lab findings in MGM?
- What is the name of the most common cause of GN?
- Bergers Disease - IgA Nephropathy
- What lab findings accompany berger's disease?
- -Episodes of macrohematuria
-Varied degrees of proteinuria.
- What is focal proliferative Glomerulonephritis?
In what age group?
- Increased mesangial cells but only in SOME nephrons.
16-35 yr olds
- What makes minimal change disease so... minimal?
- the glomerulus looks NORMAL but the podocyte pores are enlarged.
- What are the 2 characteristic symptoms of minimal change disease?
- Why is minimal change disease important to diagnose?
- It is the major cause of nephrotic syndrome in children.
- What is the definition of "Nephrotic Syndrome"?
- the protein losing kidney.
- What pathologically causes nephrotic syndrome?
- Damaged membrane has increased permeability of capillary walls; Electric charges in podocytes altered, protein/lipids escape into filtrate.
- What are the 4 lab symptoms of general nephrotic syndrome?
- 1. Severe proteinuria
3. General edema
- What major microscopic lab finding is seen with Nephrotic syndrome but NOT GN?
- Oval Fat Bodies
- What disease most often causes nephrotic syndrome?
- immune complex
- What is chronic glomerulonephritis?
- -Continual/permanent dmg
-80% have previous disorder
- What are the lab findings in chronic glomerulonephritis in
- Blood: increased creat/BUN, decreased Ca.
Urine: RBCs, protein, ALL casts, WBCs, ISOSTHENURIC sp gr.
- What is the sp gr seen in CGN?
- How does vascular disease cause kidney damage?
- Atherosclerosis - intrarenal arteries have reduced blood flow
- What lab findings accompany renal vascular disease?
- -Slight/mod protein
-NOTHING on micro
-May see RBC casts LATER when in renal failure.
- What 3 things cause TUBULAR DISEASE?
- What is the main pathologic occurence in ATN?
- Loss of large numbers of RTE cells.
- What are causes of ATN?
- -Renal ischemia
- what are the 3 stages of ATN?
- 1. Oliguric
- What are the 3 types of interstitial nephritis?
- 1. acute pyelonephritis
2. chronic pyelonephritis
3. acute interstitial nephritis
- what is acute pyelonephritis?
- An infection caused by the ascention of bacteria in the lower UT, or carried by the bloodstream.
- what are clinical symptoms of acute pyelonephritis?
- sudden onset of fever, chills, nausea, polyuria, urinary frequency.
- what are lab findings of acute pyelonephritis?
- WBCs, WBC CASTS!!!!! clumps, RBCs, RTEs.
- what would be a common cause of acute pyelonephritis?
- GNB - ecoli
- how do wbc casts form?
- diapedesis - response to inflammation.
- How does chronic pyelonephritis develop?
- From recurrent/chronic infections - cause chronic inflammation, renal scarring.
- What are lab findings seen in chronic pyelonephritis?
- -Incr. bun/creat
-WBCs*** and some casts.
- What causes acute interstial nephritis?
- What lab findings are associated with acute interstial nephritis?
-STERILE leukocyturia - no bacteria.
- What is the definition of Cystitis?
- Inflammation of the bladder and ureters.
- What usually causes cystitis?
- -Bacteria from lower UTI
- What are lab findings in Cystitis?
- -WBCs (mostly) -RBCs
-Some protein but from inflammation, not leakage.
-Bacteria -NO CASTS!!
- What types of Urinary calculi can form?
- What is the most common type of primary calculi to form?
- Calcium oxalate
- What are secondary calculi?
- stones that form around a focus of necrotic tissue or other things.
- What is ARF?
- Acute suppression of renal function with an associated decrease in the GFR.
- What are the 3 types of ARF?
- What is pre-renal ARF?
- Decreased GFR b/c general blood flow is decreased - usually from cardiac output problem.
- What causes intra-renal ARF?
- Glomerular, tubular, or vascular disease.
- What causes post-renal ARF?
- What is affected in Chronic renal failure? wHY?
- ALL ORGAN SYSTEMS AFFECTED!!!
from the pathophysiology of uremia.
- what lab findings are seen in CRF in regard to blood?
- -Increased BUN/CREAT
-Acidosis w/ incr. K, P, Sulfate
-Decreased Ca2+ and protein
- What lab findings are seen in CRF in regard to urine?
- what are 2 types of kidney tumors?
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