Glossary of psychology test
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- detection of physical energy emitted or reflected on physical objects
*located in the sense organs
- a set of mental operations that organize sensory impulses into meaningful patterns
*we perceive the world in 3 dimensions
- the round opening of the eye. when you enter a dim room the pupil widens or dilates, to let more light in.
- the part of the eye that gives it color
- neural tissue lining the back of the eyeballs interior, which contains the receptors for vision
- visual receptors that respond to dim light
- visual receptors involved in color vision
- the center of the retina where vision is sharpest, contains only cones, clustered densely together.
- a theory of color perception that proposes 3 mechanisms in the visual system, each sensitive to a certain range of wavelengths: their interaction is assumed to produce all the different experiences of hue
- the young helmholtz theory of color vision aka trichromatic theory
- a theory of color perception that assumes that the visual system treats pars of colors as opposing or antagonist.
- the opponent process theory of color vision
- when we stare at a particular hue we see red after staring at green.
- negative afterimages
- in all but one of these forms, the sides of each papilla are lined with these, which up close look a little like segmented oranges
- taste buds
- about 25 % of people are ____ who find saccharin, caffeine, broccoli, and many other substances to be unpleasantly bitter
- the theory that the experience of pain depends in part on whether pain impulses get past a neurological "gate" in the spinal cord and thus reach the brain.
- gate theory of pain
- sense of smell
- neurons in the prefrontal cortex receive both taste and olfactory input and conbine them to produce the perception of flavor
- olfaction of flavor
- connection between brain areas responsible for smell and brain areas responsible for memory/emotion
- olfaction and memory/emotion
- the intensity at which a given individual can detect a stimulus 50% of the time
- sensory threshold
- study of peoples tendencies to make hits, correct rejections, false alarms, and misses
- signal detection theory
- test indicates that you are suicidal, and you are really suicidal
- test indicates you are suicidal but you are not really suicidal
- the idea that a stimulus can influence behavior even when it is so weak or brief that we do not perceive it consciously
- subliminal perception
- subliminal flash words
*hostile(hostile, unkind) versus neutral(water, between)
*read a paragraph that could be interpreted as hostile(eg "a salesman knocked on the door, but donald refused to let him in")
*participants rate dona
- priming research
- specialized neurons that respond to the presence of certain simple feautres, such as angles and lines
- feature detectors
- focuses on the human ability to perceive overall patterns
- gestalt psychology
- one thing the Gestalt psychologists noted was that people always organize the visual field into figure and ground. The figure stands out from the rest of the environment.
- figure/groud illusion
- things that are near each other tend to be grouped together.
- -things that are alike in some way tend to be perceived as belonging together.
- -lines and patterns tend to be perceived as continuing in time or space.
- -the brain tends to fill in gaps in order to perceive complete forms.
- -good design requires, among other things, that crucial distinctions be visually obvious. For instance, knobs, and switches with different functions should differ in color, texture, or shape, and they should stand out as “figure”.
- good figure
- -Ordinarily we need to know not only what something is, but also where it is. Touch gives us this information directly, but vision does not, so we must infer an object’s location by estimating it’s distance or depth.
- depth perception
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