Glossary of psych test 3 again
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- iconic memory
- seeing memory
- echoic memory
- auditory memory
- short term memory
- lasts about 5 seconds. 7+-2 (5-9) chunks of info
- long term memory
- permanent memories, immense and limits untapped
- non-conscious encoding in brainstem
- encoding that requires attention and effort (cortex)
- for events (hippocampus)
- for language/knowledge (cortex)
- for motor performance (cerebellum)
- 3 steps of forming memories
- factors part of encoding
- storage of memories
- stored in various parts of brain including frontal and temportal cortexes
- serotonin and memory?
- serotonin release implicated memory formation
- LTP (long term potentiation)
- increse firing of neurons with repeated use
- protein that trains the brain cells to repeat patterns
- helps with memories
- procactive interference
- prior learning disrupts new learning
- retroactive interference
- new learning disrupts prior learning
- recall memory
- retrieve with few cues
(ex. essay exam generate info from memory)
- recodnition memory
- retrieve with cues
(ex. multiple choice)
- what causes forgetting
- poor encoding
- to help reduce forgetting
think about material and relate to experience
use mnemonic and retieval cues
minimize interence to storage process
- what is intelligence
- capacity to learn from experieince, to adapt, to reason, to solve problems
- uni-demensional intelligence
- 1:general intelligence
3:analytical, creativity, practical
7:language, math, muscial, spatial, kinethetic, interpersonal and intrapersonal
- what are the intelligence types of tests
- what is psychometric
- data regarding effectiveness and utility of tests
- norms and standardes of tests
- scores and procedures for comparison and interpretation
- reliability of tests
- is the test consistent over time
- does the test measure what it purports to measure
- what is the heritability of intelligence
- what is EQ
- emotional intelligence, Common sense
- what is motivation
- the need or desire that energizes and directs behavior
- what are the motivational theories?
- what does the behavioral theory of motivation believe?
- That one can produce desired outcomes, versus the belief that outcomes are forces from the outside
- what does the biological and psychodynamic theories for motivation believe?
- behavior is driven by biological systems, an humans are driven by uncounscious needs
- set point theory
- eating/activity level is motivated by body's attempt to maintain its pre-set optimal body weight
- evolutionary theory of motivation
- driven to pass on genes
- driven by the need to self-actualization.
- what is emotion
- response of an organism involving physiological arousal, expressive behaviors, and conscious experience
- types of emotion?
- basic and complex
basic is happy, sad, suprise, anger, etc.
complex is shame, guilt, love, hate, pride
- james-lange theory of emotion
- cognitive labeling of emotion follows from emotion-specific arousal (see a bear, run, feel afraid)
- cannon-bard theory of emotion
- cognitive labeling of emotion occurs simultaneously with arousal (see a bear, run and be scared)
- two-factor theory of emotion
- cognitive labeling of emotion follows generalized arousal and requires environmental cures (look for cues, bear, label emotion and act on emotion)
- what are the theories of aggression?
- what does the biological theory of aggression mean?
- hormonal, and or brain mechanizms cause aggression
eg-castration studies with testostorone
- what does the learning theory of aggression mean?
- not inborn, learned aggression
- what does the conginitive theory of aggression mean?
- goal driven creatures, frustration driven.
- what does the ethological theory of aggression mean?
- it is adaptive, used to protect self and triggered by stimuli such as-
- what is aggression?
- verbal or non-verbal behavior intended to hurt another
- what is instrumental aggression?
- with purpose
- what is non-instrumental aggression?
- aggression just to be aggressive
- what is happiness?
- emotional state characterized by feelings of pleasure, satisfaction and gratification
- what is the biological theory of happiness?
- activity in frontal cortex correleated with stable feelings of subjective well being
- under the cognitve theory of happiness, what is adaptation level?
- happiness relative to prior experience
- under the cognitve theory of happiness, what is relative deprivation?
- happines relative to what others have
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