Glossary of psych quiz

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subject matter:
Nervous system, glands and hormones, genetic factors

Key assumption:
Biological processes influence behavior and mental processes
Subject matter:
Mental images, information processing, thinking, language

Key assumption:
Perceptions and thoughts influence behavior
Subject matter:
Subjecttive experience

Key assumption:
People make free and concious choices based on their unique experiences
Subject matter:
Unconcious processes, early childhood experiences

Key assumption:
Unconcious motives influence behavior
Behavioral (learning)
Subject matter:
Environmental influence, habitual behavior, observational learning

Key assumption:
Personal experience and reinforcement guide individual development
Subject matter:
Ethnicity, gender, culture, socioeconomic status

Key assumption:
sociocultural, biological, and psychological factors create individual differences
"behavior is a result of biology"

-brain and neuroscience
-behavior genetics
"all behavior is learned from enviornment

-socio-cultural perspective
-behavioral perspective
The mind
"controls behavior"

-cognitive perspective
-humanistic perspective

-psychoanalytical/psychodynamic perspective
René Descartes
proposed doctrine called interactive dualism: the idea that mind and brain were sperate entities that interact to produce sensations, emotions, and other concious experiences
Nature/nuture issue
Which is more important, the inborn nature of an individual or the enviornmental influences
Wilhelm Wundt
focused on sensations and perception. fascinated by conciousness. he made up the idea of psychology basically and seperated it from physiology as a science.
invented the idea of self-psychology. you figure out who you are. Pioneered dream study on how dreams relate to waking life. first female president of APA
Concept of structuralism:(first major school of psychology) held that even our most complex xoncious experiences could be broken into elemental structures of sensations and feelings. Used introspection: viewing a simple stimulus and then asking the test subject to explain feelings right after to find structures
William James
Functionalism: stressed importance of behavior functions to allow people/animals to adapt to environments
B.F. Skinner
Behaviorism: Tried to figure out how behavior is influenced and gained by environment

did tests on pidgeons and rats in skinner boxes with rewards and punishments
Carl Rogers
developed humanistic psychology "third force" emphasized concious experiences and unique potential for psychological growth and self-direction.
saw mental health as good and healthy and just a progression of life
John. B. Watson
also a behaviorist (see b.f.skinner)

tried to prove this with little albert. He tried to condition an infant with a rat and a loud terrifying noise.

also testimonial advirtisement: takes positive feedback from people who have used the product to boost sales
Abraham Maslow
Created Hierarchy of needs.
1. Psychological needs (food, water, air)
2. safety and security needs
3. Love and belonging
4. Self esteem
5. self actulization needs, making the most of abilities
G. Stanley Hall
Founded APA. and received first phD in psychology
Ivan Pavlov
sparked idea of behaviorism with inital experiment of bell associated with food triggering salvation
Sigmund Freud
developed theory of the unconcious-
emphasized role of unconcious conflicts in determining behavior and personality. based on work and insights, believed behavior motivated by conflicts sexual and agressive in nature.
Contmeporary psychology
todays psychologists identify themselves as:
1. the persepctive they emphasize in investigating psychological topics
2. the specialty area in which they have been trained and practiced
using your own culture as a standard for judging
Individualistic and Collectivistic Cultures
individual/for the group
Natural Selection
the most adaptive characteristics are selected and continue onto the next generation. This is applied to psychology with the idea that psychological processes are subject to natural selection. (example snakes/gators = badddd, notice what happend to steve irwin, hahaha jk may he R.I.P.)
extreme fears of particular things. can be explained by natural selection because those who were passed on phobias, such as the fear of snakes, are more likely to survive
Developmental Psyhcology
the study of social and psychological changes throughout lifespan
Personality Psychology
investigates individual differnces and development
Health/ Educational/school
Industrial/Organization (I/O)
psychologist that concern the relationship between people and jobs. investigate productivity vs. job satisfaction, personnel selection, and interaction between people and equipment.
Clinical Psychology
studies the causes and treatments and prevention of psychological disorders
is different from a psychicatrist because he/she cant prescribe medicines to help
Counseling Psychology
closely realted to clinical, aims to improve life with help to cope with problems and challanges.

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