Glossary of psych nursing test one
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- Frontal Lobe
- Responsible for programming and execution of motor functions. Also controls higher thought processes such as planning, ability to abstract, trial and error learning and decision-making. Intellectual insight, judgement, and expression of emotion also take place in the frontal lobe. Two psychiatric disorders related to this area of the brain are depression and ADHD.
- Motor Cortex
- The part of the frontal lobe responsible for controlling voluntary motor activity of specific muscles.
- Premotor Area
- Responsible for coordinated movement of multiple muscles.
- Association Cortex
- performs many of the processes and functions of daily living. Is most responsible for personality. Other functions include executive functions (reasoning, planning, prioritizing, sequencing behavior, insight, flexibility, and judgement. Also helps to suppress and modulate more primitive impulses and actions and allow a person to focus on tasks, respond to social cues, and respond in appropriate ways to sensory stimuli.
- Broca's Area
- Controls motor speech. damage causes inability to speak (motor aphasia)
- Temporal Lobe
- Most involved with language, memory and emotion. Written speech, verbal speech, and the visual recognition that is critical to communication are all functions of the temporal lobe. When damage occurs to theis area, sensory aphasia occurs, resulting in inability to comprehend written or spoken words.
- Occipital Lobe
- Most responsible for visual functioning. Color recognition, the ability to recognize and name objects, and the ability to track moving objects are all functions. Trauma to this region of the brain can result in blindness, even if the optic nerves remain intact. Lesions of the occipital lobe can cause visual hallucinations and other abnormalities of visual functioning, such as alexia (inability to read).
- Parietal Lobe
- Functions as a processing center.
- Sensory Strip
- Sensory information such as visual, tactile, and auditory information is interpreted in the sensory strip area of the parietal lobe.
- Basal Ganglia
- Made up of cell bodies closely involved with motor functions and association. Interprets movements such as walking while it is happening, and modulate and correct muscle functioning to allow movements to occur. Involved in the learning and programming of behavior. Helps with complex motor skills involved with functions such as eating, drinking, or driving that becomes so ingrained that one does not have to consciously think about them to perform them. Alteration infunctioning can be a side effect of some medications used to treat psychiatric disorders.
- Limbic System
- Functions include instincts, drives, needs, and emotions.
- Instrumental in emotional functioning and regulating affective responses to events. Modulates common emotional states such as feeling of anger and aggression, love, and comfort in social settings. Also controls primitive drives such as sexual arousal, fear, and aggression. Is speculated to be involved with bipolar disorder.
- Primarily a refulatory structure tha acts a a gateway to the cerebral cortex. Functions to relay all sensory information, except smell, from the PNS to the cortex of the CNS. Acts as a filter to prevent the cortex from becoming overloaded.
- Regulates some of the most basic functions such as sleep-rest patterns, body temperature, physical drives of hunger and sex. Dysfunction of this structure is common in many psychiatric disorders. Appetite and sleep problems in the depressed client, the seasonal mood changes of seasonal affective disorder, and temp. regulation problems often manifested in clients with schizophrenia.
- Allows us to recall even a remote event with it's associated memory, allowing the memory to make us cry or cause us to laugh. It plays a major role in the encoding, consolidation, and retrieval of memories. Alzheimer's disease causes damage to this structrue, resulting in difficulties with short term memory and learning ability.
- Corpus Callosum
- Large bundle of white matter that connects the brain's hemispheres. Because info from 1 hemisphere is continually being transmitted to the other hemisphere via this connection, it must be intact for full, smooth, and coordinated bilateral behavior.
- Coordinates muscle movements
- Reticular Formation
- functions include arousal, attention, cardiac reflexes, motor function, refulates awareness, relays nerve signals to the cerebral cortex, and sleep.
- Helps maintain vital functions: Heart rate, respiratory.
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