Glossary of psych exam 3

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feelings that involve subjective evaluation, psychological processes, and cognitive beleifs
diffuse and long lasting emotional states that influence rather than interrupt thought and behavior
a pattern of behavioral and psychological responese to cope with events that match or excedd an organism's abilities
cultural rules that govern how and when emotions are exhibited
display rules
shortcuts that are used to minimize the amount of thinking that must be done going from step to step
heuristic thinking
theory that states that people use their current emotional state to make judgements
the affet-as-information
self-regulatory actions and decisions are affected by the bodily reactions that arise from their contemplations
somatice marker-hypothesis
link between emotions and memeory
a negative emotional state associated with anxiety, tension, and agitation
naturally occurring state that typically follows social events such as viloations of cultural norms, loss of physical poise, teasing, and self-image threats
disorder that leads to a lack of the subjective experince of emotion
evolutionary adaptive emotions that are shared across cultures and associated with specific biological and physical states
primary emotion
anger, fear, sadness, disgust, happiness, surprise, and content
primary emotions
blends of primary emotions
secondary emotions
suggests taht the experiences of emotion is caused by a physiological response to a situation
James Lange Theory of emotion
idea that facial expressions trigger the experinces of emotion
facial feedback hypothesis
theory that proposes that a situation evokes both a physiological response, such as arousal, and a cognitive interpretation
two-factor theory of emotion
a form or misattribution where residual physiological arousal caused by one even is transferred to a new stimulus
excitation transfer
the way people think about events can contribute to the intensity of emotional responses and shape the labels they place on emotions
congnitive framing
the act of imaging a possible alternative outcome that didn't happen
counterfactual thinking
attempt not to respond or feel the emotion
people tend to think more after the supression than before
rebound effect
focusing on undesired thoughts and feeling that prolongs a negative mood
amygdala is removed in an animal causes teh animal to become fearless
kluver-bucy syndrome
fast pathway prepares the animal to respond should the slow pathway confirms the threat
contemporary thinking
an emotional pattern associated with unequal activation of the left and right frontal lobes
cerebral asymmetry
an enviroment event or stimulus that threats and organism
any response made by an organism to avoid, escape from, or minimize an aversive stimulus
coping response
a term used to descrobe the physiological prepardness of animals to deal with danger
fight of flight response
the argument that femals are more likey to prtoce and care for their offspring and form social alliance than flee or fight in response to threat
tend and befriend
pattern of bloated adrenal glands, astophied lymphatic structures, and stomach ulcers that were found in selye's experiments
nonspecific stress response
a consistent pattern of responses to stress that consists of thress stages
general adaptaion syndrome
system that is activated in response to stress
hypthalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis
a hormone secreted by the pituitary gland in response to stress
adrenocorticotrophic hormone
steroid hormone released by the adrenal glands during a stress response, that produces many of the physical effects or stress
multi-tasker, hostile, aggresive
type a personality
relaxed, easy going
type b personality
study of bodys immune system in response to psycholoical variables
the body's mechanism for dealing with invading microorganism such as allergens
immune system
specialized white blood cells knows as b cells, t cells, and natural killers that make up the immune system
coping that occurs before the onset of a future stressor
anticipatory coping
part of the coping process that involves making decisions about wheather a stimulus is stressful, benign, or irrelevent
primary appraisals
part of the coping process where people evaluate their options and choose coping behaviors
secondary apprasials
people try to prevents having an emotional response to the stressor
emotion focused coping
involves taking direct steps to solve a problem
problem-faced coping
cognitive process in which people focuz on possible good things in their current situation
positive reapprasial
a personality trait that enables peopel to preceive stressors as controllable challenges
a network of other people who can provide help encouragemt and advice
social support
proposes taht other people can provide direct support in helping individuals cope with stressful events
buffering hypothesis
the way in which individuals aquire knowledge and understanding of the world around them over the life course
cognitive development
research design that compares people across different samples or ages
cross-sectional studies
a research design that examines the same individuals over time
longitudnal studies
the tendancy for humans to pay more attention to novel stimuli
orienting reflex
a decrease in response due to repeated exposure to a simulus
process through which a new experince is placed into an exisiting schema
the process through which a schema is adapted or expanded to incorporate a new expereince that does not easily fit into an existing one
the first stage in pignet's theory of cog development in which infants acquire information about the worl through their senses and respond reflexively (birth - 2)
sensorimotor stage
the understanding that an object continues to exist even when it cannot be seen
object permanence
children can think about objects that are not in their immediate view (2 - 7)
preoperational stage
children begin to think about and understand operations in ways that are reversible
concrete operational stage
final stage think abstractly (12- adult)
formal operational stage
term used to describe the ability to explain and predict behavior in terms of other people's mental states
theory of mind
the maturation of skills or abilities that enable people to live in a world with other people
social development
a strong emotional connection that persists over time and across circumstances
an instinctual tendency in some animals that produces a strong attachment to a nearby adult
a phenomenon whereby social development is facilitated when an infant is allowed to touch something that is soothing
contace comfort
the distress and anxiety displayed in infants when separated from their primary attachment figure
separation anxiety
a test of infant-caregiver attachment that involves observing how infants respond to separation from their caregivers
strange situation test
a hormone ath plays a role in maternal behavior and infant-aregiver attachment

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