## Glossary of psych col. test 1 ch. 2

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- correlation coefficient
- a measure of the nature and strength of the relationship between 2 variables

- descriptive statistics
- use mathematical procedures in an objective, uniform way to to describe different aspects of numerical data

- frequency distribution
- a summary of how frequently each of the various scores occurs

- inferential statistics
- use probability and theory to make sound decisions about which results might have occured simply through chance variation

- mean
- the statisic most often used to describe a set of data. the AVERAGE

- measure of central tendancy
- a representative score that can be used as an index of the most typical score obtained by a group of participants

- measures of variability
- statistics that describe the distribution of scores around some measure of central tendancy

- median
- the central score

- mode
- the score that occurs more often than any other

- normal curve
- a bell shaped, symmetrical curve

- range
- the difference between the highest and lowest values in a frequency distribution

- significant difference
- probability that the difference might be due to chance is less than 5 in 100

- standard deviation
- a measure of variability that indicates the average difference between the scores and their mean

- behavioral measures
- ways to study overt actions and observable and recordable reactions

- between-subject designs
- randomly assigned groups to either experimental or control conditions

- case study
- study of one individual or a small group

- confounding variable
- something which is not purposely introduced into an experiment, and changes a participants behavior and adds confusion to interpretation of the data

- control procedures
- methods that attempt to hold constant all variables and conditions other than those related to the hypothesis being tested

- correlational methods
- used to determine to what extent 2 variables , traits, or attributes are related.

- positive correlation
- +1 : as one set of scores increases, so does the other

- negative correlation
- -1 :if one set of scores increases, the other decreases

- no correlation
- 0.0 : scores closer to zero mean there is weak or no realtionship between the scores

- debriefing
- the researcher provides as much information about the study as possible, and makes sure that no one leave feeling upset, confused, or embarrassed

- dependant variable
- what the experimentor measures

- determinism
- all events physical, mental, and behavioral, are the result of, or determined by, specific casual factors

- double-blind control
- both experimentors and subjects are unaware of which participants get which treatment

- expectancy effects
- whena researcher subtly communicated to the subjects the behaviors they expect to find, producing their dsired reaction

- experimental methods
- maipulating an independant variable to look for an effect on a dependant variable

- independant variable
- the factor that the researcher manipulates

- observer bias
- an error due to the personal motives and expectations of the veiwer

- operational definition
- standardizes meaning within an experiment , by defining a concept in terms of certain procedures used to measure it or define its prescence

- placebo control
- administering placebos

- placebo effect
- occurs when experimental participants change their behavior in the abscence of any experimental manipulation

- reliability
- the consistency or dependability of behavioral data resulting from psycological testing

- representative sample
- a representative sample of a population if it matches the overall characteristics of that population

- sample
- small sample of population

- scientific method
- a general set of procedures for gathering and interpreting evidence in ways that limit errors and provide dependable conclusions

- self-report measures
- verbal answers, either written or spoken, to questions the researcher poses

- standarization
- using unifrom, consistent procedures in all phases of data collection

- theory
- an organized set of concepts that explain a phenomenon

- validity
- the info. produced by research accurately measures the psychological quaility it's intended to

- variable
- any factor that varies in amount or kind

- within-subjects design
- uses each participant as his or her own control

ex: infant changing emotion based on facial expression