Glossary of psych chapter 7

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A mental grouping of persons, ideas, events, or objects that share common properties
A "typical" member of a category, one that has most of the defining features of that category
A mental representation of visual information
Mental Models
Intutive theories about the way things work
Trial and Error
A problem solving strategy in which several solutions are attempted until one is found that works.
A systematic, step-by-step problem-solving strategy that is guaranteed to produce a solution
A rule of thumb that allows one to make judgements that are quick but often in error
means-end analysis
A problem solving heuristic that involves braking down a larger problem into a series of subgoals
A problem-solving heuristic that involves using an old solution as a model for a new, similiar problem
A form of problem solving in which the solution seems to pop to mind all of a sudden
Function fixedness
The tendency to think of objects only in terms of their usual functions, a limitation that disrupts problem solving
Mental set
The tendency to return a problem-solving strategy that worked in the past
Confirmation bias
The inclination to search only for evidence that will verify one's own beliefs
Belief perseverance
The tendency to cling to cling beliefs even after they have been discredited
A logical problem in which the goal is to determine the validity of a concusion given two or more premises
Representative heuristic
A tendency to estimate the likelyhood of an event in terms of how typical it seems
illusion of control
The tendency for people to believe that they can control chance events that mimic skill situations
Availablity heuristic
A tendency to estimate the likelihood of an event in terms of how easity instances of it can be recalled
Anchoring effect
The tendency to use an initial value as an "anchor," or reference point, in making a new numerical estimate
Framing effect
The biasing effects on decision making of the way in which a choice is worded or "framed"
A form of communication consisting of sounds, words, meanings, and rules for their combination
The property of a language that accounts for the communication of a meaning
The basic, distinct sounds of a spoken language
In language, the smallest units that carry meaning (eg, prefixes, root words, suffixes)
A group of words that act as a unit to convey meaning. Phrases are formed from combinations of morphemes
An organized sequences of words that expresses a thought, a statement of fact, a proposition, an intention, a request, or a question.
The property of a language that accounts for the capacity to use a limited number of words to produce an infinite variety of expressions
Rules of grammer that govern the arrangement of words in a sentence
The property of language that accounts for the capacity to communicate about matters that are not in the here-and-now
Spontaneous vocalizations of basic speech sounds, which infants begin at about four months of age

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