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Glossary of psych brain

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Brainstem
- the oldest part of the brain. RESPONSIBLE FOR AUTOMATIC SURVIVAL FUNTIONS
Medulla
the base of the brainstem. CONTROLS HEARTBEAT AND BREATHING
Reticular formation
plays an important role in controlling arousal
Thalamus
directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla.
Cerebellum
the little brain attached to the rear of the brainstem. HELPS COORDINATE VOLUNTARY MOVEMENT AND BALANCE
Limbic system
Associated with emotions such as fear and aggression and drives such as those for food and sex.

hippocampus, amgydala, and hypothalamus
Amygdala
components of the limbic system and are linked to emotion
Hypothalamus
Directs several maintanence activities (eating, drinking, body temp), helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion
Cerebral cortex
The body’s ultimate control and info-processing center.
Glial cells
support, nourish and protect neurons.
frontal lobes
just behind the forehead. INVOLVED IN SPEAKING, MUSCLE MOVEMENTS, AND MAKING PLANS AND JUDGEMENTS.
parietal
of the head and toward the rear. Includes the sensory cortex
Occipital
back of the head. Includes the visual areas, which receive visual info from the opposite visual field.
temperal lobes
auditory areas, each of which receives auditory info primarily from the opposite ear.
motor cortex
controls voluntary movements
Sensory cortex
front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body sensations
association areas
involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking and speaking.
aphasia
- impairment of language
damage either to Broca’s area (impairing speaking) or to Wericke’s area (impairing understanding
Brocas area
controls language expression
directs the muscle movements involved in speech
Wernickes area
controls language reception. A brain area involved in language comprehension and expression. Usually in the left temperal lobe.
angular gyrus
recevies visual info (READING ALOUD)
plasticity
the brains capacity for modification, as evident in brain reorganization following damage (especially in children) and in experiments on the effects of experience on brain development.
corpus callosum
large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them

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