Glossary of psyc test 2

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differences between properties that is needed to notice a difference
just noticeable difference
point at which stimulus is strong enough to be noticed
absolute threshold
study of the relationship between physical events and the experience of those events; detecting signals
when perception doesn't accurately represent the world
the act of organizing & interpreting sensory inputs as signaling a particular object or event
the awareness of properties of an object of event when a sensory receptor is stimulated
circular muscle that adjusts the pupil
opening through which light passes
part of the eye that has highest density of cones
(100 - 120 million)
- very sensitive to light
- only register shades of gray
marks that have a single shape
good form
when an object or quality looks the same even tho the sense info striking the eye changes
perceptual constancy
seeing the object as the same when viewed at different distances
size constancy
seeing objects as having the same shape even when the image on the retina changes
shape constancy
seeing object as having same color in diff viewing situations
color constancy
(5-6 million)
-sensitive to particular wave lengths
-allows color vision
when the muscles adjust the shape of the lens so that it focuses light on the retina from objects at different distances
exposure to darkness causes the eye to become more sensitive, allowing for better dark vission
dark adaption
eye contains 3 kinds of color sensors (yellow, green, & violet)
trichromatic theory
one color inhibits another
opponent process
image left behind by previous perception
after image
a defect in the curvature of the cornea
a stimulus will be precieved as seperated
things tend to be grouped together
lines that are straight or groovy are grouped together
marks that kind of look alike
sheet of tissue at the back of the eye containing cells that convert light to nueral impulses
transparent covering that focuses light on the back of the eye
Hypnogogic - first 5 mins. of sleep; falling or floating
stage 1: Beta
sleep spindles - bursts of brain activity

less response - lasts 20 mins
stage 2: Alpha
body temp goes down - not easyily woken up. 30 mins.
stage 3: Theta
deep sleep - heart rate goes down - body temp goes down to the lowest
stage 4: Delta
marked brain activity. heart rate up and body temp up
REM sleep - rapid eye movement
functions of REM
-memory consolidation
-clearing of unecessary memories
-occurs in stage 4 sleep
-person is not conscious
sleep walking
-vivid, disturbing dreams that occur in REM sleep
-more frequent when people are under emotional stress
-common among boys 3-7
-occur in stage 3&4 sleep
-chils appears to be awake; sweating eyes open
-child has no memory of it
-can not be woken up
night terrors
-common esp among children
-the talker often makes no sense, but sometimes speaks or even shouts
sleep talking
-involves brain abnormality
-person suddenly falls into REM
-sleep with out warning
lose all control of muscle (5-20 mins)
always sleepy
extreme sleepiness
cant move when 1st fall asleep
sleep paralysis
dangerous condition where the person stops breathing while asleep
sleep apnea
-impairment in functioning due to inability to sleep
-one major cause is worry about having it
-always tired
-non-REM sleep
-hard to wake
a type of learning that occurs when a neutral stimulus becomes associated with a stimulus that causes a reflexive behavior and, in time, is sufficent to produce that behavior
classical condition
elicits an unconditioned response w/o prior learning
unconditioned stimulus (US)
is a reflective response elicited by a particular stimulus
unconditioned response (UR)
is a neutral stimulus that acquires significance through the conditioning of repeated pairings with an unconditioned stimulus
conditioned stimulus (CS)
is a response that depends or is conditional on pairings of the conditioned stimulus w. an unconditioned stimulus; once learned the CR occurs when the CS is presented alone
conditioned response (CR)
emotionally charged response elicited by a neutral stimulus
conditioned emotional response
learn to avoid negative stimulus
avoidance learning
Little Albert
conditioned phobias
father of behaviorism
John Watson
process by which a behavior becomes associated with a consequence
operant conditioning

ex.- tantrums
actions that have positive outcomes are likely repeated
law of effect
process by which consequences lead to increase the likely hood of a response
if presented increases a response
positive reinforcement
removal of something unpleasant but still increase of behavior
negative reinforcement
a negative or unpleasant eventas a consequence of a behavior
undesired consequence decreases the likely hood of reaccurence
positive punishment
behavior leads to the removal of an unpleasant event
negative punishment
effective punishment
-appropriately aversive
things we need (water, food)
primary reinforces
things we want
secondary reinforces
used to change beavior
behavior modification
given after each response
continous reinforcement
partial reinforcement
given after a fixed period of time
fixed interval
given for a response emitted after a variable interval of time
variable interval
given after a fixed ratio or certain number of responses
fixed ratio
mixed up; given after a variable ratio of responses
variable ratio

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