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Glossary of physical science chp. 4

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absolute zero
the temperature on the Kelvin scale at which an object would possess an absolute minimum of kinetic energy
melting point
the temperature at which a solid changes to a liquid
chemical change
a change that alters the identity of the material
angstrom
10(-8) meter; a hundred-millionth of a centimeter
compressibility
how much more the atoms of an object/substance can be packed together
chemical property
how matter will react and chnage in the presence of other kinds of matter
freezing
the phase change from liquid to solid
crystalline solid
a solid in which the particles are held in a fixed repeating pattern
sublimation
the phase change directly from solid to gas or from gas to solid
physical property
one that can be observed and measured without a change in the kind of matter being studied
gas
have no definite shape nor volume; the state of matter in which the disruptive forces completely overcome the attractive forces, allowing particles unlimited movement
evaporation
the phase change from a liquid to a gas
boiling
the rapid phase change from liquid to gas
plasma
the state of matter in which particles travel at such tremendous speeds that they become electrically charged
melting
when a solid changes to a liquid
condensation point
the temperature at which a material changes from gas to liquid
Brownian movement
the constant random motion of particles in a liquid or a gas
liquid
the state of matter in which the attractive forces and the disruptive forces are balanced, allowing particles limited movement
phases
the physical states of matter; solid, liquid, gas
particle model
a model of matter in which all matter is made up of tiny particles in constant motion
kinetic energy
the energy of motion
temperature
the measure of the average kinetic energy in a material
gas pressure
force exerted on a unit of area by gas particles colliding with a surface
boiling point
the rapid phase change from liquid to gas
viscosity
the thickness of a fluid
nanometer (nm)
10 (-9) meters
angstrom (A)
10(-8) meter; a hundred-millionth of a centimeter
(A)
condensation
the phase change from gas to liquid
solid
matter with a definite shape and definite volume
amorphous solid
a solid in which the particles are held in random placement
freezing point
the temperature at which a liquid becomes a solid
kelvin (K)
the basic unit of temperature in the metric system
Bose-Einstein condensate
one particle (condensate) formed when particles of matter are super-cooled to temperatures near absolute zero
atom
the fundamental particle of an element
diffusion
the process of mixing by particle motion

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