Glossary of physical science chap. 6

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atomic number
the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
a negatively charged particle with an extremely small mass
theory of relativity
E=mc(2); an equation that establishes the relationship between loss of mass and loss of energy; that mass and energy are equivalent
nuclear chemistry
the study of reactions involving atomic nuclei
the joining together of smaller nuclei into a larger one
energy level
a region in an atom that contains electrons of a certain energy
beta particle
a free electron emitted from a nucleus in nuclear decay
a positively charged particle in the nucleus of an atom; 1,836 times heavier than an electron
law of definite proportions
a chemical compound is always made up of the same elements in the same proportions
alpha particles
a particle made up of 2 protons and 2 neutrons; a helium nucleus
isotopic notation
a special notation which shows both the atomic number and the mass number of the element
different forms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons
the emission of rays and particles from an unstable nucleus
mass number
the sum of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom; also known as atomic mass
quantum model
represents the location of electrons as general and indefinite, with electrons being present in cloud-like orbitals
nuclear bombardment reaction
occurs when the nucleus is struck with atomic particles or other nuclei
regions of most probable location of electrons
the splitting of a nucleus
atomic mass unit (amu)
a unit used to measure the mass of an atom; 1/12 of the mass of a carbon-12 atom
planetary model
Bohr's model of the atom, resembling a miniature 3-D solar system
chain reaction
a nuclear change that occurs when one unstable nucleus emits neutrons, which cause other nuclei to split and release neutrons, which hit other nuclei and continue the reaction, releasing a tremendous amount of energy
the center of an atom, which contains protons and neutrons
atomic mass
the total of the masses of the particles in an atom
a neutral particle in the nucleus of an atom, with approximately the same mass as a proton
radioactive dating
a method used by evolutionists to try to prove the ages of fossils and rocks using radioactive decay

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