Glossary of parts of the cell (structure and function)

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plasma membrane
*made of double layer of lipids within which protiens are embedded
*externally facing protiens and some lipids have attached sugar groups
* Serves as the external cell barrier : acts in transport of substances into or out of the cell
*cellular regions between the nuclear and plasma membrane : consist of fluid cytosol,organelles,inclusions
*rodlike double membrane structures
*Site of ATp synthesis
*powerhouse of cell
*dense particles consisting of two subunits (RNA and protien
*Free or attached to the rough endoplasmic reticulum
*Site of protien synthesis
Rough Endoplasmic reticulum
*membrane system enclosing a cavity
*Externally studded with ribosomes
*sugar groups are attached to protiens within the citernae:protiens are bound to in vesicules for transport to the Golgi apparatus and other sites
* external face synthesizes phospholipids and cholestrol
Smooth Endoplasmic reticulum
*membranous system of sacs and tubiles: free of robosomes
*Site of lipis & steriod synthesis,lipid metabolism, and drug detoxification
Golgi apparatus
*stack of smooth membrane sacs and associated vesicles close to the nucleus
* Packages, modifies and segrates protiens for secretion for the cell
*inclusion in lysosomes
*Incorporation into the plasma membrane
*membranous sacs containing acid hydrolases
*site of intercellular digestion
*membranous sacs of oxidase enzymes
*detoxify a number of tonic substances :the most important enzyme
*cyndrical structures made of tublin protien
*support the cell and give its shape
*involved in intracellular and cellular movement
*form centrioles
* Fine filaments of the contrile protien actin
*involes in muscle contraction and other types of intracellular movement
*help form the cells cytoskeleton ,cilia and flangella if present
Intermediate filament
*protien fibers composition varies
*stable cytoskeleton elements
*resist mechanical forces acting on cell
*paired cyndrical bodies each composed of nine tripiets of microtubles
*Organize a microtuble network during mitosis
*forms the bases of cilia and flagella
*short cell surface projections; each cilium composed of nine pairs of microtubles surronding a central pair
* move in unison creating a unidirectional current that propels substances accross cell surfaces
*Like cilium,but longer Only ex in humans is sperm tail
* propels the cell
*storage for nutrients waste and cell products
*largest organellsurronded by nuclear envelope
*contains fluid nucleoplasm,nucleoli, and chromatin
*control center of the cell
*transmits genetic information and provides instructions for protien synthesis
Nuclear Envelope
*double membrane structure (pierced by pores) outer membrane continous with the endoplasmic reticulum
*seperates the neucleoplasm from the cytoplasm and regulates passage of substances to and from the nucleus
*dense spherical bodies composed of robosominal RNA and protiens
*site of ribosome subunit manufacture
*grandular threadlike material composed of DNA and histone protiens
* DNA constitues the genes

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