Glossary of neuro lec 1

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photoreceptor cells
- rods and cones (in retina)
- respond directly to light
what kind of receptor is a nicotinic receptor
- receive input from photoreceptors
- in retina
- make electrical signals to change membrane potential w/out making an action potential
what kind of receptor is a catacholamine receptor
retinal ganglion cells
- in retina
- fire AP's (axons go outside retina)
- each one corresponds to a particular part of the visual field
what kind of receptor is a neuropeptide receptor
amino acid NTs
glutamate (EPSP)
glycine (IPSP)
spatial receptive field
- region of the visual field
where light can elicit AP activity from a retinal ganglion cell
fovea spatial receptive field
small (small light spot elicits most dramatic change)
neuropeptide NTs
supstance P
monamine NTs
peripheral spatial receptive field
large (large spot of light elicits most dramatic response)
on center receptive fields
bright center flanked by low luminance surround - finds brighter objects in the background
other NTs
Inhobitory receptors open what?
open K and Cl receptors
off center receptive fields
low luminance center flanked by bright surround - finds darker objects in the background
AMPA receptor
- glutamate causes Na and K ions to flow
- only lasts a few seconds
color opponent receptive fields
represend wavelength info from cones (red, blue, green)
movement receptive fields
in periphery and larger (like its corresponding RGC)
NMDA receptor
- glutamate causes Na and Ca ions to flow, but only if its depolarized enough to remove the Mg ion
- can cause LTP
Lateral geniculate nucleus
- receives parallel (form vs motion) pathways from retina
- an increase in post-synaptic responsiveness that lasts hours or days
- requires previous experience and the association of 2 stimuli
- when LTP prevents a synapse from participating in other experience dependent activities
- occurs if the sypapse is activated at low f, or at a specific combo if inputs
- reduces # of AMPA or decreases G-protein efficiency
M layer
- 1 and 2 of LGN
- does movement
- larger
- LTD activates CaMKII in large amounts (too much can cause brain damage - released in injury)
- LTD activated Ca in small amounts and mayb gets the protein phosphatase pathway
P layer
- 3-6 of LGN
- does contrast
- smaller
did phrenology
LGN contralateral
- layers 1,4,6
said brain was like cake
LGN ipselateral
- layers 2,3,5
Broca's area
- left inferior frontal gyrus
- can understand language but cant talk
primary visual cortex
- receives input from LGN
- 7 layers
- a radial unit of cells represents all orientation for a specific spatial field (in both eyes)
- foveal receptive field is disproportionatly large
PVC layer 4
- LGN input
- center/surround RF's
- the LGN axons from each eye sort into ocular dominance columns
- layer 4 neurons in these columns are activated by either eye
Wernicke's area
- left superior temporal gyrus
- speak nonsense in natural rhythym, cant understand talking or writing
PVC layer 2/3, 5/6
- binocular
- maximally stiumlated by an edge created at the boundary of light and dark regions of spatial RF for a certain angle
- good for P pathway info
Wernikce's theory
- Wernicke's area is where its decoded for the brain
- brain processec it and sends it back to Wernicke's
- then to broca's where its put into a form used by the precentral gyrus
arcuate fasciculus
damage to connection b/t broca and wernicke - have understanding but talk nonsensical
orientation receptive fileds
- spatial RF for a certain angle
- the neurons are arranged in radial columns going from ventrical to pia and have the same oreintation selectivity
movement selective neurons
in 2/3, 5/6 and respond to moving edges of light
said brain size was related to intelligence
INAH-3 nucleus
- 3rd interstitial nucleus of anterior hypothalmus
- same size in women and gay men
P pathway
- relayed to temporal lobes
- object recognition
- damage -> prosopagnosia
- individual V4 neurons have complex color selective properties
M pathway
- relyaed to parietal lobe
- does movement and visual attention (where)
- higher order parietal neurons are maximally active when attending to specific objects
what gives musicians perfect pitch
a larger planum temporale, but only if they have muscial training before 7
- blocks NMDA receptors (and LTP)
- mice can do associative learning, but not place learning (non-declarative)
- same effect if you knockout the CA1 region of hippocampus
Fronal lobe in vision
- visual perception and recognition
- infulences eye movement for selective attention
- working memory (orderly perception of time and space)
what happens if you kill neurons in CA1 of hippocampus?
have working and sensory memory, but no new declarative long term memory after damage (can still learn new tasks)
doxycycline (and its implications)
- switches on a transgene that prevents NMDAr transcripts
- mice can retain new information if given this, so NMDA must be reactivated for new info to be consolidated
- NMDAr must be functional right after learning
gets B-ard receptors in solitary nucleus (normally activated by vagus sensory afferent) and promotes memory consolidation
blocks B-adr receptors and impairs memory
ventromedial frontal cortex
necessary for motivation to learn - damage this and loose ability to look to future rewards

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