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Glossary of music mid term

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a capella
unaccompanied vocal music
allegro
tempo mark indicating "fast"
adagio
tempo mark indicating "slow"
cadenza
a showy passage for the soloist appearing near th eend of the movement in a cocerto
cadence
the concluding part of a musical phrase
crescendo
gradual increase in volume
diminuendo
gradual decrease in volume
forte
in notation, dynamic mark indicating "loud"
mezzo-piano
moderately soft
basso continuo
small ensemble of at least two instruments who provide a foundationfor the melody or melodies above. heard almost exclusively in baroque music
coda
(italian for "tail") a final and concluding section of a musical composition
interval
distance between any two pitches on a musical scale
da capo aria
an aria in two sections, with an obligatory return to and repeat of the first.
basso ostinato
motive or phrase in bass that is repeated again and again
tempo
speed at which beats occur in music
syncopation
rythmic device in which the natural accent falling on a strong beat is displaced to a weak beat or between beats
modulation
process in music whereby the tonal center changes from one key to another, from G major to C major for example
monophony
musical texture involving only a single line of music with no accompaniment
homophony
texture in which all the voices or lines move to new pitches at roughly the same time
polyphony
texture involving two or more simultaneously sounding lines
pizzicato
process whereby a performer plucks the strings of an instrument rather than bowing them
ritardando
in musical notation, a tempo mark indicating a slowing down of the tempo
tonality
organization of music around a central tone (the tonic) and the scale built on that tone
accelerando
tempo mark indicating "getting faster"
fortissimo
in musical notation, a dynamic mark indicating "loud"
pianissimo
in musical notation, a dynamic mark indicating "very soft"
sonata
something sounded
secco recitative meter
dry recitative accompanied only by the harpsichord
notation
*sharp-raises pitch half step
*flat-lowers pitch half step
*natural-cancels preexisting sharp or flat

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