Glossary of musculoskeletal 2
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- recent weight gain can increase
- physical stress on the musculoskeletal system
- dull, deep, and throbbing describe ?
- bone pain
- aching pain is associated with?
- joint or muscle pain
- what type of pain is associated with fractures?
- sharp or knifelike
- joint stiffness in the elderly is often misdiagnosed as ?
- diabetes mellitus, sickle cell anemia, or SLE put the client at risk for?
- osteoporosis and osteomyelitis
- reduced intake of vitamin D and calcium put a client at risk for
- women who start menarche late or menopause early are at risk for ?
- osteoporosis d/t decreased estrogen levels
- diuretic can lead to
- muscle weakness d/t electrolyte imbalances.
- steroids can deplete?
- bone mass and lead to osteoporosis
- adverse reactions to HMG CoA reductase inhibitors can include
- myopathy =which can cause muscle aches or weakness
- smoking, alcoholic drinks,and caffeine can increase a clients risk for ?
- protein promotes?
- muscle tone and bone growth
- vitamin C promotes?
- healing of tissues and bones
- calcium deficiency inreases a clients risk for ?
- a diet high in purine can cause
- gouty arthritis
- uncontrollable risk for osteoporosis?
- gender 80% female
age 70 or older
small boned size
ethnicity= Caucasian or Asian
- Modifiable risk factors for osteoporosis?
- little or no physical activity
low calcium intake
low estrogen levels =female
excessive caffeine or alcohol intake
medications for arthritis, endocrine disorder, seizures, gastrointestinal diseases
- when is peak bone mass archived?
- 35 to 40 years old in both sexes
- rating of 5 =normal
- active motion against resistance
- rating of 4= slight weakness
- active motion against some resistance
- a 3 rating = average weakness
- active motion against gravity
- a 2 rating= Poor ROM
- passive ROM gravity removed and assisted by examiner
- a 1 rating= severe weakness
- slight flicker of contraction
- a o rating= paralysis
- no muscular contraction
- measures ROM
- a abnormal nudge test
- client falls backward easily seen in clients with Parkinson's and cervical spondylosis
- flattening of the lumbar curvature may be seen in clients with ?
- herniated lumbar disc or ankylosing spondylitis
- lumbar lordosis
- an exaggerated lumbar curve =lumbar lordosis seen in clients who are pregnant or obese.
- acute rheumatoid arthritis
- tender, painful, swollen, stiff joints .
- chronic rheumatoid arthritis=systemic
- chronic swelling and thickening of the metacarpophalangeal and proximal interphalangeal joints, limited ROM, and finger deviation toward the ulnar side
- non tender, rounded, enlarged, swollen, fluid filled cyst. common on the dorsum of the wrist.
- hard, painless nodules over the distal interphalangeal joints (Heberden's nodes) and over the proximal interphalangeal joints (bouchard's nodes)
- Brouchard's joints
- osteoarthritis= nodes over the proximal interphalangeal joints
- thenar atrophy
- seen in carpal tunnel syndrome.
- painful extension of a finger= seen in infection of the flexor tendon sheathes
- swan neck deformities
- seen with chronic rheumatoid arthritis
- acute gouty arthritis
- the metatarsophalangeal joint of the great toe is painful, tender, reddened, hot, and swollen.
- seen at pressure points
- hallux valgus
- the great toe is deviated laterally and may overlap the second toe. an enlarges painful inflamed bursa (bunion) may form on the medial side.
- painful thickening of the skin that occur over bony prominence and at pressure points
- Hammer toe
- hyperextension at the metatarsophalangeal joint with flexion at the proximal interphalangeal joint. common in the second toe
- plantar wart
- painful warts (verruca vulgaris) often occur under a callus appearing as tiny dark spots
- McMurray's test
- client supine
ask to flex one knee and hip
place thumb and index finger on either side of knee
use hand to hold the heel of the foot up
rotate the lower leg and foot laterally
repeat with other leg
- What should the nurse note when doing the McMurray's test?
- pain or clicking which could indicate a torn meniscus of the knee.
- flat feet are what type of finding?
- flat feet
- feet with no arches
may cause pain and swelling on the foot surface
- lateral curvature of the spine with an increase in convexity on the side that is curved
- the ballotment test
- detects large amounts of fluid on the knee
- If a client reports pain and has limited ROM of the cervical spine, the nurse should ask the client if?
- he has slept wrong
has carried a heavy suitcase
have they been in a automobile accident
- Impaired range of motion of the cervical spine and pain that radiates to the back, shoulders, or arms is associated with?
- cervical disc degenerative disease or spinal cord tumor.
- Impaired ROM
neck pain associated with fever, chills, and headache indicate?
- serious infection such as meningitis
- If a client reports low back pain that radiates down the back the nurse should ?
- perform the Laseque's test: at the point of pain dorsiflex the foot
- Osteporosis occurs when?
- bone forming cells cannot keep pace with bone destroying cells.
- Why is osteoporosis more common as a person ages?
- bone resorption increases
calcium absorption decreases
production of osteoblasts decreases.
- Vitamin D definciency can cause ?
- Lateral bending of the thoracic and lumbar spine should be
- 35 degrees
- Hyperextension of the thoracic and lumbar spine should be
- about 30 degrees
- rotation of the thoracic and lumbar spine should be
- 30 degrees
- While performing the Laseque's test a client reports pain that shoots down one or both legs and below the knees would indicate a possible?
- herniated intervertabral disc.
- Continuous back pain with aching pain at night, not relieved by rest indicates?
- Lower back pain with tenderness and limited ROM is common in clients with
- If the nurses suspects a client has one leg longer than the other she would ?
- ask client to lie down with legs extended and measure both legs
- What should the nurse do once she inspects a reddened, swollen, mass on a client?
- Palpate for tenderness
- Painful and limited abduction of the arms accompanied by muscle weakness and atrophy are seen in clients with?
- Rotator cuff tear
- While inspecting the elbows if a nurses notices redness, heat, or swelling it could indicate?
- bursitis of the olecranon process due to trauma or arthritis
- epicondylitis is also known as
- tennis elbow
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