Glossary of microbiology 10-23-06 bio234
Other Decks By This User
- 6 types of
Genetic Engineering of Theraputic Proteins, and their uses.
- 1) Tissue Plasminogen Activator (TPA); storkes
2) Human Insulin; diabetis
3) Human Growth Hormone (hGH); growth defects
4) Factor VIII; blooding clotting (hemophilias)
5) Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF); helps heal wounds
6) Hepatitis B vaccine; help /c fighting infection
- explain Vector.
- A "vehicle", such as a modified virus or DNA molecule, used to deliver genetic material into the body for gene therapy
- explain Restiction enzymes.
- Bacterial enzymes that cleave DNA at very specific locations
- 5 kingdom classification system
- monera (bacteria), Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia
- 7 Divisions of Monera.
- 1) Archaebacteria
2) Gram postitive
6) Gram Negative
- describe Archaebacteria
- ancient bacteria found in harch environments. ie: Yellowstone, or glaciers
- describe Gram Positive bacteria
- containing peptidoglycan
- describe Mycoplasma
- wall-less bacteria - no cell wall, multi shaped
- describe Cyanobacteria
- bacteria which photosynthesis
- describe Spirochetes
- they move via axial fillaments
- describe Richettsias
- obligate intracellular parasites- they require a living host (a living cell) to survive.
- Bergey's manual of Systemic Bacteriology - what are it's divisions of Monera?
- Archae, Mycoplasma, Gram Positive, and Gram Negative
- 7 terms of Sterilization and Disinfection
- 1) sterilization
- define: Sterilization
- kills everything - including spores
- define: Disinfectant
- doesn't kill all organisms (doesn't kill spores)- works on inanimate objects
- define: Antiseptic
- Inhibits microbiotic growth- used on living tissue
- define: Degerm
- medical removal of microbes, use of alcohol (swabbing)
- lowers numbers of microbes - high temps (dishwashing)
- define: germicide
- generic - kills microborganisms
- define: bacteriostate
- slows down growth of organisms - ie: refrigeration/freezing
- 3 ways to disinfectant/antiseptics
- 1) denature proteins
2) injure plasma membrane (alcohol; damages phospholipide bilayer)
3) damage DNA ( uv lights; Thymine dimer)
- 5 factors that influence microbial death
- 1) number of organisms
2) microbial characteristics
5) organic matter
- how does number of organisms effect influence of microbial death?
- more organisms harder to kill off
- how does microbial characterists effect influence of microbial death?
- ie: mycobacteria - more lipids, compared to other bacteria, more resistant from drying out
ie: endospores - more difficult to kill off
ie: gram - or gram +, + usually easier to kill off, due to relience to cell wall
- how does pH effect influence of microbial death?
- heat /c pH, easier to kill off
- how is time an influence of microbial death?
- longer you expose organism disenfectents - more effective agent is on microbe
- how does organic matter effect influence microbial death?
- carbon source - food source
- physical methods of disenfecting
- heat and cold
- 3 ways to use heat as a disenfecting agent.
- 1) moist - autoclaves; /c high pressure you can achieve higher temps
2) dry - flame; less effective - longer time required in heat
3) pasteurization - heat up to 63C about 30 min (then cool down), takes care of most human pathogens
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