Glossary of microbiology - immunology

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__________ occur upon second and subsequent exposures to an antigen.
Memory responses
________ are the cells from which all circulating cells arise.
hematopoietic stem cells
_________ are small regulatory proteins essential for communication between cells. They include interferons, interleukins, colony-stimulating factors, and tumor necrosis factors. They have many actions in the inflammatory response and contribute to fever
defense against infectious diseases and cancer
Skin and mucous membranes present strong barriers to infection, aided in their effectiveness by the flushing action of ____________.
3 important antimicrobial factors, found in secretions, body fluids and cells:

peroxidase system

________ is found in saliva, milk, and neutrophils and forms chlorine (atoms) which kills bacteria.
2 primary lymphoid tissues:
bone marrow (B cell maturation)

thymus (T cell maturation)
__________ is an iron-binding protein found in saliva, milk, mucus, and neutrophils and it binds up iron so microbes cannot use it.
Hematopoietic stem cells differentiate in response to __________ into specific types of blood cells.
colony-stimulating factors
study of the mechanisms of host defense
_________phagocytize and digest engulfed materials.
neutrophils (PMN's)
____________are immune responses that are not directed at a specific infectious agent or material and these responses are not affected by prior exposures
nonspecific defense mechanisms
_______participate in infammatory reactions and to parasites.
Lymphocytes that mature in the bone marrow are called _______ cells (are responsible for producing antibodies).
B cells
______release histamine and other inflammatory chemicals.
_______are responses that require exposure to develop (very precise mechanism)
specific defense mechanisms
List nonspecific defense mechanisms:
Physical barriers - skin and mucous membranes
Secretions - musus, saliva, urine
Antimicrobial substances in body fluids & phagocytes
Inflammation - releases chemicals that attract phagocytes and other cells to the area of injury
Physiological defenses - Fever
_______release histamine.
mast cells
Specific defense mechanisms are dependent on ________ (B and T cells).
Competition by ______ _______ prevents infection with many potential pathogens.
normal flora
The ______ ______ _______ is a system of mononuclear cells (monocytes and macrophages) scattered throughout the body that are highly efficient at phagocytosis.
mononuclear phagocyte system
Where are hematopoietic stem cells are found?
bone marrow
List four granulocytes involved in host defense:
mast cells
neutrophils (PMN's)
Name three types of cells that take in virus or bacteria and chews it up and stick a piece on their surface:
dendritic cells
Name three types of cells that take in virus or bacteria and chews it up and stick a piece on their surface (after which T and B cells come in and get fired up):
dendritic cells
Antibodies and lymphocytes respond to specific ______ (proteins)
Along with the _________, the mononuclear phagocytes are the "professional phagocytes".
Name Secondary lympohoid tissues:
adenoids, tonsils, spleen, appendix, lymph nodes, skin associated with lymphoid tissues, and mucosal-associated lymphoid tissues
Macrophages and dendritic cells also play essential roles in specific immune resonses as _____ ______ cells.
______ cells 1)kill, 2) coordinate response, and 3) supress the immune reaction.
T cells
________ tissues are distributed all over the body and are sites where lymphocytes interact with foreign materials.
________ cells make antibodies.
B cells
Lymphocytes that mature in the thymus are called ________ cells (responsible for specific cellular immune resonses).
T cells
________ is found in serum, tears and mucus along with neutrophils and macrophages. It also breaks down peptidoglycan (gram +) in bacterial cells walls.
2 types of lymphocytes:
T cells

B cells
__________ are lymphocytes that kill abnormal cells in a non-antigen specific manner.
Natural killer cells
_________ are the type of cells primarily responsible for specific immune responses.

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