Glossary of microbiology - immunology
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- __________ occur upon second and subsequent exposures to an antigen.
- Memory responses
- ________ are the cells from which all circulating cells arise.
- hematopoietic stem cells
- _________ are small regulatory proteins essential for communication between cells. They include interferons, interleukins, colony-stimulating factors, and tumor necrosis factors. They have many actions in the inflammatory response and contribute to fever
- defense against infectious diseases and cancer
- Skin and mucous membranes present strong barriers to infection, aided in their effectiveness by the flushing action of ____________.
- 3 important antimicrobial factors, found in secretions, body fluids and cells:
- ________ is found in saliva, milk, and neutrophils and forms chlorine (atoms) which kills bacteria.
- 2 primary lymphoid tissues:
- bone marrow (B cell maturation)
thymus (T cell maturation)
- __________ is an iron-binding protein found in saliva, milk, mucus, and neutrophils and it binds up iron so microbes cannot use it.
- Hematopoietic stem cells differentiate in response to __________ into specific types of blood cells.
- colony-stimulating factors
- study of the mechanisms of host defense
- _________phagocytize and digest engulfed materials.
- neutrophils (PMN's)
- ____________are immune responses that are not directed at a specific infectious agent or material and these responses are not affected by prior exposures
- nonspecific defense mechanisms
- _______participate in infammatory reactions and to parasites.
- Lymphocytes that mature in the bone marrow are called _______ cells (are responsible for producing antibodies).
- B cells
- ______release histamine and other inflammatory chemicals.
- _______are responses that require exposure to develop (very precise mechanism)
- specific defense mechanisms
- List nonspecific defense mechanisms:
- Physical barriers - skin and mucous membranes
Secretions - musus, saliva, urine
Antimicrobial substances in body fluids & phagocytes
Inflammation - releases chemicals that attract phagocytes and other cells to the area of injury
Physiological defenses - Fever
- _______release histamine.
- mast cells
- Specific defense mechanisms are dependent on ________ (B and T cells).
- Competition by ______ _______ prevents infection with many potential pathogens.
- normal flora
- The ______ ______ _______ is a system of mononuclear cells (monocytes and macrophages) scattered throughout the body that are highly efficient at phagocytosis.
- mononuclear phagocyte system
- Where are hematopoietic stem cells are found?
- bone marrow
- List four granulocytes involved in host defense:
- Name three types of cells that take in virus or bacteria and chews it up and stick a piece on their surface:
- Name three types of cells that take in virus or bacteria and chews it up and stick a piece on their surface (after which T and B cells come in and get fired up):
- Antibodies and lymphocytes respond to specific ______ (proteins)
- Along with the _________, the mononuclear phagocytes are the "professional phagocytes".
- Name Secondary lympohoid tissues:
- adenoids, tonsils, spleen, appendix, lymph nodes, skin associated with lymphoid tissues, and mucosal-associated lymphoid tissues
- Macrophages and dendritic cells also play essential roles in specific immune resonses as _____ ______ cells.
- ______ cells 1)kill, 2) coordinate response, and 3) supress the immune reaction.
- T cells
- ________ tissues are distributed all over the body and are sites where lymphocytes interact with foreign materials.
- ________ cells make antibodies.
- B cells
- Lymphocytes that mature in the thymus are called ________ cells (responsible for specific cellular immune resonses).
- T cells
- ________ is found in serum, tears and mucus along with neutrophils and macrophages. It also breaks down peptidoglycan (gram +) in bacterial cells walls.
- 2 types of lymphocytes:
- T cells
- __________ are lymphocytes that kill abnormal cells in a non-antigen specific manner.
- Natural killer cells
- _________ are the type of cells primarily responsible for specific immune responses.
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