Glossary of mass comm law ch. 5-8

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year and call letters used by 1st commercial radio station to broadcast on airwaves
1920, KDKA
trend in broadcast industry regulation which began in 1980
the "reasonable access rule" applies to whom/ types of candidates?
legally qualified candidates for federal elective office who are actually running
under the equal opporunities rule, what must a broadcast station make "equal" for a political candidate and his/her opponent in the policital race?
lowest unit rate charged
term for what is automatically activated when a politcal candidate "uses" nonexempt broadcast time
equal opportunities
can a broadcaster be subject to liability if they fail to censor or edit vulgar or defamatory remarks made by political candidates under the "rules"?
fairness doctrine
name for former FCC rule (abandoned in 1987) requiring all broadcasters to:
1.) devote a reasonable amount of programming to controversial issues of public importance
2.) provide contrasting viewpointes to those issues
personal attack
FCC rule (abandoned in 1987) activated whenever a person or small group is/was subjected to a character attack during broadcast presentations on public issues
FCC rule (still in effect) which requires that supporters of opponent candidates are entitled to equal time on the air if/when a broadcaster sells or gives nonexempt time to supporters of the other candidate
Act I. Sec 8. Part 3. aka Commerce Clause
ultimate legal source from which Congress derives its power to enact broadcast regulations and to delegate authority to the FCC
communications act of 1934
the basic legislation which still theoretically governs broadcasting today (includes many legis. amends.)
public interest directed
stated service goal/purpose for which broadcasting licensese were originally granted by FCC in 1934
the FCC shall carry out its prescribed powers in the name of the "public..."
a. convenience
b. interset
c. necessity
the FCC's primary task of dividing and designating use of the radio spectrum involves what three processes?
1. spectrum allocation
2. band allofment
3. channel agreement
theory behind government control of broadcasting which treated radio spectrum as a public resource to which no individual could claim a "property right" = _____ similar to manner in which what other major "public resource" are treated
a. public water ways
b. public trust
three probable causes of problems with electronic media regulation making it one of the most complex and inconsistent areas of government control
1. inability to adapt to technological changes
2. poor planning
3. limited budgets
three different sets of general beliefs about the role of governmental regulations, which contribute to the recent porliferation of the electronic media content control regulations and elimination of business regulatory oversight regulations
1. proper role of representatives
2. concern with the motivation of individual citizens (homoeconomicus and homopoliticus)
3. appropriate goal of government regulation
which of the "representational styles" would be most likely to promulgate laws and regulations for the benefit of small limited constituencies "back home"?
committed 1 instructed delegate
which of the citizen motivations and views of the appropriate role of government would be most ilkely to favor laws and regulations which gave themselves specific benefits or advanced their personal beliefs and agenda over those which produce the greates
purpos fo the creation of the FCC under the Communications Act of 1934 and the goal to which the FCC was entrusted
"to maintain the control of the US over all the channels of radio transmission"
-regulating communications
the congressional reason for granting the FCC independent regulatory authority over all electronic communications directed to promoting the public interest
widespread fear of monopolic domination- maintain control
name of 1st amendment political-philosophical interpretational approach which categorizes locations and then concludes that once a public-access channel is set up at the demand of franchising government, both the govt and the cable operator are prohibite
forum-based approach & designated public fora
prior to 1993, if only one broadcast license was available in the community and two people applied for it, method used by the FCC to determine who would recieve it
comparative process
name of bureau of the FCC charged with enforcement of regulations on broadcasters
media bureau
if two people apply for the only broadcast license available in a community, method currently used by FCC to decide who will receive the license
electronic simultaneous multiple-round = auction of highest bidder
number out of 5 people who apply as a group for a broadcast license who must be US citizens, if any
types of individuals/groups which would have legal standing to formally oppose a licensing application or renewal wih the FCC
a. listener/viewer who is a resident
b. direct economic interest
c. interference
length of current licensing period for TV and radio stations, granted by the FCC (assuming licensees have no violations and havent been given a "short" or "limited" license)
8 years
term used to describe fact that those with current boradcast licenses have a total renewal advantage over all other potential licenses
renewal expentancy
name for law which protects the market for broadcasters who might otherwise find themselves effectively edged out by cablecasters who choose interest to import distant signals and other cable programming
must carry rule
retransmission concent
name for 1993 FCC regulation under which a local cable system may have to pay a popular station for the right to carry its signal in the cable lineup
under current regulations, what $ amount can cable companies charge their customers
anything they want
under what circumstance can a cable TV system might legally use its two-way capability to gather information about it's customers
catch cable theft & for marketing information
name of case in which "must-carry" law requiring cable companies to carry local broadcast stations was upheld
Turner 2 v. CC in 1997 aka statutory copyright licenses
family hour
term for the time udring which it is safe for families to watch TV (from 7 PM to 9 PM)
safe harbor
time from 10 PM to 6AM when broadcasters can use more sexually explicit or violent programming
audience of children of what ages are covered by FCC rules limiting number of commercial minutes during children's programming
under 16
under FCC rules, children's programming commercials must be limited to ____ on weekends
10.5 minutes/hour
"program-length commercial programming" will count in what manner towards the commercial limits
current requirement for broadcast of children's education programming (amount of time per what period)
3 hours/week, between 7 AM and 10 PM

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